1336 - 1340



1336

1336 26 January The Anglo-Scottish truce is extended again, this time until the middle of April. The Scots agree to lift the sieges of Lochindorb and Cupar, and a draft treaty is drawn up. It provides that, as Edward Balloil is middle aged and childless, he shall be recognized as King of Scotland, with young David II as his Heir, and that David would leave France and live in England. A party of Scots are sent to Normandy, to seek David II's agreement, and report back to the English Parliament in March.
1336 29 January Pope Benedict XII issues the bull 'Benedictus Deus', confirming the existence of the Beatific Vision.
1336 March Benedict XII summons Philippe VI to Avignon, and informs him in a private interview that the Crusade is cancelled. There are too many problems, he says, the preparations were not going well, recruitment was poor, and there were doubts about Philippe VI's ability to lead the expedition. Germany and northern Italy are in turmoil, Naples and Aragon were on the verge of war in Sicily, and now France was involved in the war between England and Scotland. It was simply not possible at this time.
1336 11 March Parliament meets at Westminster, and hears from a messenger of David II that he rejects the peace proposal, and is not interested in further truces. Parliament votes a new subsidy for war.
1336 Mid-March Philippe VI leaves Avignon and travels to Marseille, where his galley for the crusade is being prepared. He is entertained by a mock sea battle where the ships fire oranges at each other.
1336 Easter Philippe VI, celebrating Easter at Lyon, meets with a delegation from Scotland. They inform him that the truce has only five weeks to run, and remind him of promise of aid. Philippe repeats his promise.
1336 7 April Edward III announces that as soon as the truces expire he will once again invade Scotland in great numbers.
1336 May Edward III, having decided not to lead the invasion himself this time, appoints Henry of Lancaster, son of the Earl of Lancaster to command. He leaves in May for the north, with a small force of 500 men-at-arms and more than 600 infantry.
1336   Edward III appoints admirals to requisition ships.
1336 First week of May An English spy reports that there is an unusually high level of activity in the French Channel ports.
1336 June Henry of Lancaster, having encountered little resistance, reaches Perth, where he settles in to await supplies. One of his retainers, Sir Thomas Rosslyn, sails from King's Lynn to take the coastal castle of Dunnotar, 15 miles south of Aberdeen, meeting heavy resistance and loosing his life in the process.
1336   The ships gathered by the English admirals gather at Portsmouth.
1336 Early June Edward III receives reports of Philippe VI's meetings with the Scots at Lyon, and alarming (and assuredly exaggerated) reports of the French King's preparations for war.
1336 11 June Edward III, abandoning his plan to preside over a Great Council at Northampton, leaves in haste for Newcastle, where a force of about 400 men, including Robert d'Artois, is put together from available royal household and the retinue of William Montague. He then marches at speed for Perth.
1336 25 June The Great Council Edward lll had summoned assembles at Northampton. John Stratford, Archbishop of Canterbury, Henry Burghersh, Bishop of Lincoln, and Edward's brother John of Elthham preside in the King's absence. They suggest a new embassy to France, to divine the intentions of Philippe VI, and negotiate.
1336 Late June John of Elthham travels north to oversee the muster of the levies from the northern counties.
1336 1 July A son, Philippe, future Duke of Orleans, is born to Philippe VI of France and Jean de Bourgogne, at Vincennes.
1336 7 July The Bishops of Durham and Winchester, along with others, are appointed as ambassadors to France.
1336 11 July A judgment is made in the Parlement of Paris in favor of Garcie Arnaud, Sire de Navailles, who has been suing Edward III for some years, attempting to collect some 30,000 florins he claims Edward owes him. A large award of damages is made in Arnaud's favor, and the Parlement orders it to be paid out of seizures made on Edward III's holdings in Gascony.
1336 12 July Edward III, having added some 400 men to his forces from Henry of Lancaster's troops, leaves Perth and relieves the siege of Lochindorb, where the Countess of Atholl and her forces are down to their last quarter of rye. He then proceeds to destroy every bit of livestock he can find.
1336 17 July Edward III reaches the Moray Firth, and begins to pillage the area. The food stores at Kinloss Abbey were emptied, Forres was burned, and while Elgin's famous church was let stand, nothing else around it was. He also burns the crops as far inland as he can reach.
1336 21 July Edward III and his troops reach Aberdeen, descending on the city from the north.
1336 22 July Edward III and his troops spend the day burning the town, and demolishing what cannot be burned.
1336 24 July The Bishops of Durham and Winchester depart from Dover for France.
1336 End of July John of Ethan enters Scotland with several thousand troops, and proceeds to ravage the south-west of the country in Carrick and the Clyde valley, burning, it was claimed, whole congregations in their churches, to which they had fled for safety.
1336   Philippe VI's Mediterranean galley fleet arrives in the harbors of Normandy and Brittany.
1336   English spies report the arrival of the Mediterranean fleet.
1336   The English fleet at Portsmouth, reacting to incorrect information suggesting the crisis was over, disperses, leaving the coast unguarded.
1336 August The Bishops of Durham and Winchester have a series of meetings with Philippe VI and his Council at the royal palace in the Bois de Vincennes. They do not go well.
1336 12 August Edward III forbids all exports of wool and leather from the country, which eventually causes great distress in Flanders .
1336 20 August Philippe VI announces his final answer to the English ambassadors, rejecting their proposals entirely, and saying he intended to aid the Scots by every means in his power, and that he had a large fleet and a large army, with which he intended to invade both England and Scotland. Startled by this frankness, and reluctant to commit such information to paper, the Bishops dispatch a messenger, one William Tickhill, to warn the royal Council verbally.
1336 22 August Four French warships attack the town of Orford, attacking and taking the merchant ship Caterine. Once her crew is all killed or captured, she is sent to Flanders.
1336 23 August William Tickhill, traveling with a single squire, reaches Dover.
1336   French warships return and raid Walton, taking the Paternoster with a valuable cargo of dye and wax.
1336 24 August William Tickhill, having ridden through the night, arrives at Northampton in the late evening.
1336 Late August John Stratford has writs issued calling for a Great Council at Nottingham, to be on 23 September, summoning not only the prelates and barons of the realm, but also representatives of the shires and boroughs.
1336   Walter Tickhill is dispatched to Scotland, to inform Edward III of his news, and of the Council, and request that Edward return to England in haste.
1336 Autumn Philippe VI, deprived of his Mediterranean reinforcements and lacking a suitable port to land his troops in due to Edward III's raids in Scotland, cancels his plans to invade, and instead concentrates on naval raids on southern England.
1336   The English government in Bordeaux begins to repair and supply the castles in the Aquitaine.
1336   Plans are made for the re-enforcement of Guyenne/Gascony with English troops.
1336   A large French fleet, consisting of galleys and transports, leaves the harbors of Normandy and Brittany, making for the Isle of Wight. There they attack several of the Edward III's ships, and some loaded merchantmen, either scuttling or carrying off the ships once the crews were dead.
1336 September English merchants and travelers in France are arrested, and their goods seized, and English sailors in Flanders are rounded up and imprisoned.
1336 6 September The English fleet is ordered to attack the retreating French galleys, but they are unable to, as the French have returned to their bases.
1336 Second week of September Walter Tickhill, having arrived in Scotland to find the eastern lowlands in turmoil because of Douglas' raiding parties, and been abandoned by his bodyguard, finally reaches Edward III with his message.
1336   Edward III abandons the planned campaign, riding south with the commanders of the army, though leaving most of his forces behind.
1336 Mid September John Thrandeston, Edward III main agent in Europe, is sent by the King's Council on a mission to the counts of Hainault, Juliers and Guelders.
1336 24 September Edward III arrives in Nottingham, where the Great Council is already gathering.
1336 25 September The Great Council at Nottingham opens, receiving the news of the outcome of the embassy to France and the raids in Suffolk and the Isle of Wight. Southern England is in hysterical fear of invasion and wild and improbable rumors are everywhere. In response the Council authorizes recruitment of an enormous army (80, 000), appointing commissioners to select men and see to the gathering of supplies, and grants a tax of a tenth on movables and a fifteenth on lands. They also levy a special tax on wool merchants.
1336   Once the Council disperses, Edward and the army commanders return to Scotland.
1336 October Edward III asks the Pope's permission to use the money raised for the Crusade for his current needs. When the Pope says no, he seizes it from St. Mary's Abbey anyway, along with any subsidiary chests in cathedrals throughout England.
1336   Andrew Murray, Guardian of Scotland, captures and destroyed the English strongholds of Dunnotar, Kynnef and Lauriston, and carried on a harsh campaign of destruction in his own territories, ravaging Gowrie, Angus and Mearns, seeking to make them uninhabitable by the English.
1336   The English, learning of the arrest and imprisonment of English merchants and sailors throughout France, retaliate in kind.
1336   Orders are given detaining every ship in England, from which a fleet will be chosen, and galleys are summoned up from Bayonne. Requests are also sent to Genoa for more.
1336 October Relations between England and Flanders, already bad due to the fact that Flemish ports are shipping supplies to the Scots, and that Flemish ships are in the forefront of the attacks on the coast of England, break off completely as a result of the Count de Flanders enforcement of Philippe VI of France's trade sanctions.
1336 18 October Edward III marches to Bothwell, which was Edward I's principal fortress in the lowlands. Repairs are begun to the place, despite the fact that winter had come on, and that there were partisan attacks led by William Douglas.
1336 22 October Deciding that the French have missed their opportunity, the fleet of the western Admiralty, which had been stationed off the mouth of the Thames, is dismissed. The larger ships make for Gironde, to join the annual wine fleet.
1336 26 October The fleet of the northern Admiralty is dismissed.
1336 End of October John Thrandeston, King Edward III's principal agent in France, spends a fortnight at Valenciennes, in the court of Count William of Hainault
1336 November French forces stage a destructive raid on the Channel Islands.
1336 8 November The massive recruitment of men in the Coastal areas of England is which the Great Council had ordered is canceled.
1336 Mid-December Edward III leaves Scotland.
1336 25 December Edward III holds Christmas at Hatfield.
1336 26 December Philippe VI demands Robert d'Artois' extradition from England. He sends this demand not to Edward III, but to Edward's Seneschal in Gascony, and says that the Seneschal should deal with the Master of Royal Archers that Philippe was sending to Gascony for that purpose.
1337

1337   A daughter, Jeanne, is born to King Philippe VI and Jeanne de Bourgogne, but dies before the year ends.
1337   Edward III knights John Pulteney, who has lent him a great deal of money.
1337   Public order begins to break down in Ghent and Bruges, as a result of the English embargo on wool. The principal advocate of coming to an agreement with England, Sir Sohier de Courtrai, attempts to persuade the men of Ghent and Bruges to join Edward III's continental coalition, and was paying out English money to buy friends for England.
1337   The Pope attempts to mediate the rising tensions between Philippe VI and Edward III. Philippe tells him that this is a matter between a sovereign and his vassal, and that the attempt is impertinent. The Pope then proceeds to refuse Philippe VI a tax on the Church, and orders the money gathered for the Crusade to be returned to the donors, to prevent Philippe from using it for his spring campaign.
1337   War hysteria reaches a fever pitch. Wild rumors circulate through England, that Englishmen are being massacred in France, that French spies are aiding the Scots in the north, and that enormous armies are being prepared to invade and annihilate England.
1337 Early January At the bastide of Puymirol in the Agenais officers of Edward III defy officers of Philippe VI, who are trying to seize his property to satisfy the Parlement judgment against Edward.
1337 5 January Representatives of the ports of the northern and western Admiralties meet in London to be informed by four of Edward III's most senior councilors of the King's need for shipping in the coming year. This amounted to the services of the ships and their crews for a period of three months, without compensation. This proposal is greeted with an uproar, and immediately dismissed.
1337 10 January Edward III obtains permission from a Council of magnates to require free service from his ports, with or without the consent of the seamen. All ships of the western and northern Admiralties are ordered to assemble at Portsmouth by 15 March.
1337 Mid-January Robert Ufford and William Monatgue, close confidants of Edward III, are appointed as Admirals.
1337 February Philippe VI's Master of Royal Archers, a Savoyard named Etienne le Galois de la Baume, arrives in Gascony, and attempts to take the walled town of Saint-Macaire by surprise. The town however, closes its gates in time and le Galois de la Baume is forced to withdraw, due to a lack of siege equipment.
1337   The ships of the northern Admiralty are ordered to assemble a month ahead of the March 15 date, and to proceed to Orwell to await orders. Twenty ships already mustered for the western Admiralty are ordered to leave at once for Bordeaux.
1337   The silver coinage of France is devalued.
1337   Sir Andrew Murray takes Kinclaven Castle, north of Perth, then joins up with William Dougas and invades Fife, taking Falkland tower and Leuchars.
1337   Philippe VI, after a short, ultra secret negotiation, purchases five castles in the eastern Cambrésis for his son, Jean from the Bishop of Cambrai, including Cambrai itself, and two sites on the Scheldt. Louis of Bavaria, the Holy Roman Emperor, protests strongly, but to no avail.
1337   Edward III tells his commanders in the north, Percy and Neville, that he is detained by greater threats in the south, and they will have to do the best they can.
1337 28 February After three weeks bombardment by a siege engine named 'Buster' St. Andrews surrenders to Andrew Murray and William Douglas.
1337 Spring Count William of Hainault announces that he is convening a diplomatic conference at Valenciennes, on 4 May, 1337. To this he invites representatives of Edward III and, perhaps cynically, Philippe VI, as well as representatives of the Count de Flanders and the Bishop of Liège.
1337 March Sir Andrew Murray attacks Bothwell Castle, recently and expensively re-fortified by the English. It surrenders, and is torn down by Murray.
1337 3 March Parliament, originally summoned for York, meets at Westminster. The government reports the losses in Scotland, and Edward III proposes to raise two armies, one to proceed to Gascony at once, and another to go to Scotland soon, and meanwhile to send a great embassy to France with a draft treaty to be submitted to Philippe VI. Parliament endorses these plans, and votes the King a subsidy.
1337   Edward uses the occasion of this Parliament to publicly recognize the service of those close to him. William Montague is made Earl of Salisbury, and is appointed to command the expedition to Guyenne/Gascony. Henry of Lancaster is made Earl of Derby, William Bohun is made Earl of Northampton. William Clinton and Robert Ufford are also made Earls, and twenty other men are knighted by the King in person
1337 16 March Parliament closes with magnificent celebrations at court.
1337 18 March Edward III issues orders for an army to be raised for the defense of Guyenne/Gascony, to sail from Portsmouth at the end of April, and requisitions all ships in the south and west coast ports of more then 40 tons. This proves to be an unrealistic date, and is pushed back several times.
1337 Second half of March King Philippe VI is at his hunting lodge in Saint-Christophe-de-Halate, and passes the next month in the forests of Ile de France.
1337 End of March The Scots march westward and lay waste to the lands of the supporters of Edward Balloil in Galloway.
1337 April Pope Benedict XII warns Philippe VI that the mood in Germany is one of 'Irritation approaching desperation' and that an imperial alliance with England is likely.
1337   A combined French and Scottish fleet raids Sark.
1337   John Thrandeston returns from the continent accompanied by agents of the counts of Hainault and Guelders, as well as the Duke of Brabant.
1337 11 April Under pressure from king Philippe VI of France, and convinced by him that his earlier generous offers were an encouragement to heresy and rebellion, pope Benedict XII declares that it is impossible to absolve Louis of Bavaria.
1337 15 April Edward III announces his delegation to the conference at Valenciennes. It consists of Henry Burghersh, Bishop of Lincoln, and two earls, William Montague, Earl of Salisbury and William Clinton, Earl of Huntingdon. Burghersh and the embassy travel with an ultimatum from Parliament and Edward III for Philippe VI, and orders to acquire as many continental allies as possible for Edward III.
1337 End of April Ambassadors from Edward III arrive to seek an audience with Philippe VI. He refuses to see them.
1337 Last week of April Henry Burghersh and the English embassy leave England for the conference in Valenciennes, well supplied with money. They are authorized to draw 2,000 L. from the Bardi bank, and 1,000 L. from the Peruzzi. Additionally the Earl of Salisbury has brought with him 5,000 marks, in case it should be needed. They arrive in Valenciennes in great spectacle.
1337 30 April The arrière-ban, a general levy of feudal troops, is proclaimed throughout France.
1337 May Philippe VI meets with his Great Council, swelled by the presence of the principal members of the nobility, and agrees that the Aquitaine should be taken into his hands, on account of Edward III's breach of his obligations as a vassal of the French crown by harboring Robert d'Artois, and for 'certain other reasons' that are not defined.
1337   Philippe VI formally confiscates the Aquitaine, sending his troops over the border to seize Edward III's castles, while French ships raid Jersey and the Cinque Port towns.
1337 4 May The Count of Hainault's conference opens in Valenciennes. Not surprisingly, only supporters of Edward III have shown up. The count and his brother are present, as well as the counts of Guelders, Limburg, Cleves and Alost, and the Margrave of Juliers. The Duke of Brabant, the Count of Namur and the Bishop of Cologne send representatives.
1337 Mid May Philippe VI and his advisors finalize their war strategy for the south. Guyenne/Gascony is to be attacked from the east, via the Garonne valley, by an army gathered from the southern provinces. Muster date is set for 8 July.
1337 Third week of May Jeanne de Valois, Countess of Hainault and sister to Philippe VI and quite possibly the only person at the Valenciennes conference who is really interested in peace, sets out from Valenciennes accompanied by Jean de Hainault, with the ultimatum that the conference has produced. This is a document with three main points: One, that Robert d'Artois be given a safe conduct to defend himself in the French court, two, that Philippe VI should abandon his alliance with the Scots, and three, that Philippe should appoint a date when the continuing litigations in the Parlement of Paris between himself and Edward III would be settled.
1337   Jeanne de Valois arrives at Vincennes to find Philippe VI preparing for war. After several days of being ignored by Philippe's ministers she succeeds in gaining an audience with him, but to little purpose. Jeanne asks Philippe to send representatives to Valenciennes, but Philippe dismisses her saying he know about her husband's part in assembling a coalition against him, and accusing Jean de Hainault of trying to 'hound him from his kingdom'.
1337   Philippe VI relents somewhat, sending a message after the departed Jeanne de Valois, saying he would consider giving a safe conduct to Robert d'Artois, and would allow him to choose his own counsel and object to the presence of his enemies among the judges. On the Scots and he litigation with Edward III, he has nothing to say.
1337   The Cogge de Flandre, laden with armor, jewelry, chests of records and correspondence, and 30,000 livres of silver, is taken by ships of Yarmouth en route to Scotland from France.
1337 20 May The Count de Foix, Philippe VI's commander in the south receives his orders.
1337 23 May Raoul, Count d'Eu and Constable of France, receives his orders.
1337 24 May The bailli of Amiens is ordered to take over the Count of Ponthieu.
1337 Early Summer Conversations between Sohier de Courtrai and agents of the English are overheard at Ghent, and reported to the French government.
1337 7 June William, Count of Hainault dies.
1337   The English embassy departs Valenciennes bound for Brussels, capital of the Duke of Brabant. There, after promising him the stupendous sum of 60,000 L., payable over four years, and liberally dispensing wool licenses to his subjects, they succeed in making an alliance with the Duke.
1337   The first signs of activity for the army for Guyenne/Gascony appear in Portsmouth, ships arriving, supplies being stored. The sailing date, thrice postponed, is set for July 7.
1337 13 June Oliver Ingham, Seneschal of Guyenne/Gascony, receives at Linbourne two lieutenants of the Seneschal of Périgord who deliver letters declaring the duchy forfeit, and demanding him to surrender the towns and castles in his command. He temporizes, saying that he needs time to consult with the council in Bordeaux, and that Robert d'Artois, who's activities were the stated reason for the forfeiture, was not in Guyenne/Gascony, and that he would need several weeks to get instructions from England. He is granted some time, grudgingly, but is informed that an army is on the way to enforce the forfeiture.
1337 Mid June Edward III's embassy writes to him optimistically that they would be ready to return at the end of the month, with all the alliances needed to mount a major campaign.
1337   Edward III downgrades plans for the army for Guyenne/Gascony, deciding instead to concentrate his forces in the Low Countries. Command is given to one John of Norwich, a man of minor rank, and the forces to be made available to him are much reduced from the original plan, some of the men gathered at Portsmouth being told to go to London to be shipped to the Low Countries.
1337 22 June Edward III, at Stamford, begins issuing orders for the gathering of a invading army, to be ready to sail from London on 28 July.
1337 28 June The results of the English embassy to Valenciennes and Brussels are reported to Philippe VI and his advisors. As a result of this information troops that were holding themselves ready for either Amiens or Marmande were directed to the northern army muster at Amiens.
1337 End of June A fleet of 20 ships from Great Yarmouth arrive in Dordrecht to ferry the English embassy home, but they are not there, still being in negotiations with Louis of Bavaria, the excommunicated Holy Roman Emperor. He eventually agrees to an alliance after being promised the sum of 300,000 gold florins (@45,000 L.).
1337   Once negotiations with Louis of Bavaria are concluded the smaller rulers settle their contracts, the counts of Hainault and Guelders being paid, 100 ,000 florins (@£15,000), and likewise the Margrave of Juliers. Other, smaller princes, make similar accommodations, and Henry Burghersh compiles a list of troops amounting to nearly 7,000 men, as follows:
The Emperor 2,000
The Duke of Brabant 1,200
The Count of Hainault 1,000
The Count of Guelders 1,000
The Margrave of Juliers 1,000
The Count of Loos 200
Rupert, Count Palatine 150
The Count of La Marck 100
The Margrave of Brandenburg 100
The Lord of Falkenburg 100
Others 96
For a total of 6,946 men, at a cost in excess of £160,000. up front, plus fixed wages to each purveyor of troops (15 florins per man per month being the usual rate), replacement cost for horses lost on the campaign, and ransom costs, if needed.
1337   Muster is set for the middle of the Cambrésis, on 17 September, with the Emperor to join later, on 1 October.
1337 6 July Sohier de Courtrai is arrested by officers of the Count de Flanders, and charged with treason. This leads to an uproar, as de Courtrai is a citizen of Ghent, and ought not to have been arrested on the king's order, but stand trial before the courts of the town.
1337 8 July The French army set to invade Guyenne/Gascony is mustered. It consists of @12,000 men, made up of contingents brought by the seneschals of Toulouse, Beaucaire, and Agen, and the comtes d'Armagnac and de Foix. Command is given to the Constable of France, Raoul, Count d'Eu, who is at best a man of limited ability.
1337 10 July Constable Raoul d'Eu takes the castle of Villeneuve, then splits his army, leaving part of it to besiege other strongholds in the Agenais while he marched west to meet up with the Count de Foix.
1337 17 July Puymirol in the Agenais falls to the French. The garrison may have resisted, but the town did not, surrendering in exchange for the right to hold an annual fair on St. Foy's day.
1337   Raoul d'Eu and the Count de Foix meet and invest Sainte-Macaire for siege, doing great damage to the walls, destroying outlying houses and uprooting vineyards.
1337 26 July William de la Pole and Reginald Conduit meet with a consortium of English wool merchants, and approve of a plan to form the English Wool Company, to raise money for the King's war. The plan is that the Crown will compulsorily purchase nearly all of the years wool crop, on credit, and then sell it at wildly inflated prices in the wool starved Low Countries. This consortium is granted a monopoly on the wool, the right to purchase at enforced low prices on credit, an indefinite period to repay the credit, and protections in the courts against being sued. In return, the merchants of the Company will lend Edward III £200,000, and give him half the profits of the expected 30,000 sacks of wool they were expecting to export. This plan, understandably, meets with resistance amongst wool producers.
1337 31 July Raoul d'Eu, Constable of France, abandons his siege of Sainte-Macaire, again splitting his army and dispatching them on raiding missions in different parts of the Duchy to harass the partisans of Edward III.
1337 Early August Raoul d'Eu, Constable of France, marches his section of the Army into the area east of Bordeaux, taking the keep at Tastes, which belongs to one of Edward III's staunchest supporters.
1337   Gaston de Foix, commanding the other part of the French army in Guyenne/Gascony, marches south to the foothills of the Pyrenees and, while not taking anything of note, inflicting great damage on the property of the partisans of Edward III.
1337   Edward III appoints Arnaud de Durfort and his son, also Arnaud, as joint captains of Penne.
1337   Edward III further reduces the number of troops bound for Guyenne/Gascony, appropriating to the army for the Low Countries all of the ships and most of the troops set aside for the army. John of Norwich is left with a small force of Welsh archers, Londoners, and a handful of men at arms, perhaps 300-500 men in all. Embarkation point is changed from Portsmouth to Bristol.
1337   In an attempt to appease the rebellious Flemings a commission of five senior counselors is sent to Bruges to announce that the indemnities for past rebellions, now two years in arrears, would be reduced.
1337   A small French squadron is stationed at the new port of La Rochelle. It is quickly bested by attacks from Bayonne.
1337 13 August After a wait of three weeks, and a run across the channel under a storm to avoid the French fleet, some of the English embassy arrive in England. The rest arrive several days later, minus horses and baggage.
1337 Second week August Raoul d'Eu, Constable of France, invests Pommiers for Siege.
1337 Third week August The English embassy arrives in London, where the beginnings of an army are mustering, to inform Edward III of the details of their treaties.
1337 End of August Pommiers falls to Raoul d'Eu, Constable of France.
1337 26 August Muster date for the army destined for the Low Countries is pushed back to 30 September. Troops continue to gather slowly at London, Sandwich and Orwell.
1337   Edward III agrees with Louis of Bavaria, the Holy Roman Emperor to push off the meeting of the English and Imperial armies for two months, the new date being St. Andrew's Day, 30 November.
1337 26 August Despite some misgivings about the quality and enormous cost of their German allies by some of the English royal Council (William Montague, Earl of Salisbury, in particular is appalled at the size of the subsidies), Edward ratifies all of the treaties that Henry Burghersh has negotiated with the German Emperor and princes.
1337   John of Norwich, commanding what there is of the English forces bound for Guyenne/Gascony finally sets out, from London, as the point of embarkation has been changed yet again.
1337   Raoul d'Eu, Constable of France, lays siege to Civrac, which capitulates almost immediately.
1337 September Raoul d'Eu, Constable of France, retires to La Réole, leaving field operations to his subordinates.
1337   The Scots begin to stage destructive diversionary attacks in the north. Edward III to reluctantly reassign several of the nobles and retinues intended for the Low Countries campaign to deal with the Scots.
1337   John of Norwich arrives in Bordeaux
1337 Mid September Gaston de Foix returns to La Réole from his raiding with 6,000 reinforcements from Bearn. At this point the Constable bestirs himself, and plans are made to lay siege to Bordeaux. Troops are moved to Podensac, 30 miles from Bordeaux, and part of the French Channel fleet is moved to La Rochelle, to blockade the city from the seaward side.
1337 20 September Raoul d'Eu, Constable of France, is recalled to the north, ending the plans for the siege of Bordeaux.
1337 September A French fleet attempts to capture Henry Burghersh, the Bishop of London, but fail. They take shelter afterwards on the island of Cadsand, in the Scheldt.
1337 End of September Parliament votes a generous grant, a tenth on moveables and a fifteenth on unmovables, to be collected annually for the next three years to finance the wars in France and Scotland.
1337 October Edward III formally revokes his allegiance for the Aquitaine, and repudiates the homage he swore at Amiens.
1337   Edward III is forced to send the Earl of Salisbury north to deal with the rising incursions of the Scots.
1337   The date of the French muster at Amiens is pushed back to 15 November, as it is clear that the English will not be taking the field on their planned date.
1337 Mid-October The Scots attack Carlisle, and lay waste to parts of Cumberland.
1337   The French, convinced that the English will soon be landing at Boulogne, place all available troops under the command of Charles, Count d'Alençon and Philippe de Navarre, and dispatch them to defend the town.
1337   In Gascony, relieved of the French invasion, the English come out of their garrisons and retake almost everything that the Constable had captured that year, save for Puymirol.
1337 End of October Troops at Sandwich receive their orders. They are to be shipped over first, under the command of the Admiral of the north, Sir Walter Mauny, to land in Holland. Henry Burghersh travels with them, to explain the delays to Edward III's continental allies, and to pay them something if they demand it.
1337   An English force of 500 men-at-arms and 2,000 archers, lead by Sir Walter Mauny, attacks and defeats the French fleet under the command of Sir Guy of Flanders, at Cadsand.
1337   Oliver Ingham, Seneschal of Gascony, convenes an assemblage of the loyal barons of Guyenne/Gascony. They are few enough in number that a side chapel of the Dominican church in Bordeaux is big enough to fit them all. Notable for their absence are the lords of Fronsac, Caumont and Duras, who were to become major pro-English players.
1337 Early November The troops at Sandwich under Sir Walter Mauny embark and depart for the Low Countries.
1337   The Scots lay siege to Edinburgh.
1337   The English in Guyenne cross the Dordogne and invade eastern Saintonge, raiding Sainte-Foy-la-Grande and taking Parcoul-sur-Dronne, burning it and all the towns around it before invading the Agenais from the north, crossing the Lot near Villeneuve.
1337   Sir Walter Mauny, with a fleet of 85 ships, 1,450 troops and2,200 marines (as well as the wool cargo, and associated diplomats and clerks...), makes an attempt to land at Sluys, but is driven back.
1337 9 November Sir Walter Mauny lands his fleet at Cadsand, a marsh with small fishing villages at the mouth of the Hondt. The spend several days there burning the villages and killing the inhabitants in an attempt to draw out the garrison at Sluys.
1337 13 November In response to Oliver Ingham's raids, Philippe VI appoints Simon d'Arquèry, a judicial official of the royal household, and Etienne le Galois de la Baume, the Master of Royal Archers) as captains-general for the south west.
1337 Mid November Cardinals Bertrand de Montfavence and Pedro Gomez de Barroso, appointed despite their vast lack of political and diplomatic experience by the Pope to attempt to mediate the Anglo-French conflict, arrive in Paris. They are well received by Philippe, who is not at the moment averse to a truce.
1337 12 or 13 November Battle of Cadsand. The garrison at Sluys, under the command of Guy, le Batard de Flanders and half-brother to the count, responds to the depredations of the English at Cadsand, and offer battle. They are defeated after much bloodshed on both sides, and Guy is taken prisoner.
1337 20 November Edward III cancels his expedition to the Low Countries, and sends his soldiers home. It is 10 days before he is to meet the Holy Roman Emperor in the field and he has only 1,000 men gathered, not counting those led by Sir Walter Mauny, already en route, his coffers are empty, and Louis of Bavaria has not been paid.
Late November Cardinals Bertrand de Montfavence and Pedro Gomez de Barroso arrive in England, equipped as if they were traveling into a desert, bringing their own wine cellar and a huge supply of food. Edward had been denying them safe conduct across the channel, until he cancelled his continental expedition, but now received them with an outward show of grace, but informs them that he can't make any decisions without consulting Parliament, and that he could not make any truce without the approval of his German allies. The Cardinals, angry and tactless, respond that Louis of Bavaria's consent is immaterial, as he is an excommunicate, and that the others are only in it for the money, and have in fact already deserted him, swearing secret oaths to Philippe VI.
1337   The next day, in another unpleasant meeting, one of cardinals makes a long, pro French sermon on peace, loudly heckled by the Archbishop of Canterbury. They then explain that unless Edward III agrees to a truce the Pope would declare for France, and that they had the authority to, and would, degrade any churchman below the rank of Bishop who assisted in the war effort, dissolve his treaties and alliances and prohibit military expeditions on pain of excommunication and interdict.
1337   The Bishop of Thérouanne arrives in Bruges with messages from the King of France assuring them that the indemnities would not only be reduced, but cancelled entirely, if he could be sure of the loyalty of Flanders.
1337 End of November Henry Burghersh, with the fleet if Sir Walter Mauny, lands in Dordrecht, Holland. He proceeds directly upriver to Antwerp, and then to Mechelen, to meet with the German princes and explain to them the changes in English policy. He manages to convince them that Edward III will be with them in the spring, when French armies will be appearing on their borders, and that their subsidies, already in arrears, will be paid by March.
1337   Henry Burghersh returns to Holland, where he meets with Pole, Conduit and the wool merchants at Gertruidenberg, where he demands that they pay him £276,000 by 22 March. The merchants, faced with this demand for cash exceeding the amount that they had agreed to pay for all of the wool when they were in possession of only a third of it, are shocked, replying that they couldn't raise that much money if they sold everything they owned. The best they could do, they said, was to advance 100,000 marks (66,666L.), which was the agreed on first installment of the loan, before they sold the wool.
1337 Somewhere about this time, actual time indefinite... Some of Edward III's German allies begin discrete communications with the French. In particular the Duke of Brabant, after making Henry Burghersh sign a new agreement stating that his alliance with Edward III would not be revealed, appoints Leon of Crainheim as his diplomatic agent in the French court. Leon explains to Philippe VI, and may even believe, that the Duke is not and never was allied with Edward III, does not have a grievance with King Philippe VI, and his involvement with the English embassy under Burghersh was limited to allowing them to lodge in his territory as they passed.
1337 20 December Henry Berghersh and his fellow councilors, unable to believe that the merchants are telling them the truth, respond harshly, seizing all of the wool sacks at Dordrecht for the King's expenses. The sale was turned over to officials of the Crown, who, because of political pressure and lack if skill, do not manage to sell the wool for good profit, selling at low prices for ready cash, and managing to raise only £41,679, after expenses, which was less even that the merchants had offered to forward.
1337   Writs of summons are issued for a Parliament at Westminster in the first half of February.
1337 24 December Spurred by the threats of the Cardinals Bertrand de Montfavence and Pedro Gomez de Barroso, Edward III promises that he will not attack France until 1 March of the next year, and that he would suspend all military action by land and sea until that same date, unless his own subjects were attacked. Also that he would hold a Parliament on 3 February of the next year to consider more formal arrangements. This appears to satisfy the cardinals.
1337 25 December Messengers leave to inform Henry Burghersh of this new agreement, and warn him of the matters he now had to deal with.
1337 28 December Faced with economic ruin, the Flemings rebel. There is a large, armed and angry demonstration in Ghent, outside the Cistercian convent at Biloke.
1337 End of December Henry Burghersh receives news of Edward III's intent to negotiate with Philippe VI. He is appalled, and responds to Edward that the unanimous opinion of the German princes is that a truce would be disastrous, as they were already angry about the cancellation of this years fighting, and as all of the allies would have to be named in it, and some of them were quite anxious that they not be named. Also that a delay would mean that their subsidies would have to be paid before they were due to take the field, and that would leave them with no incentive to actually do so.
1337   The English forces in the Agenais lay siege to Agen, the provincial capital and seat of the French Seneschal.
1337   The French fleet at La Rochelle is reinforced, allowing the French to establish great control over the Bay of Biscay, and allowing them to patrol near the mouth of the Gironde.
1338

1338   England begins shipping grain to Gascony, which is suffering from the drought which has destroyed the previous years crops of grain, wine and oil.
1338   Gaston, Count de Foix invades the upper Adour, encountering little resistance due to the fact that most of the garrisons are unpaid and morale is very low.
1338 January The commander of Saint-Sever, one of the greatest fortresses of the Aquitaine, complains that he has been maintaining 500 men at arms and 1,000 infantry at his own expense, and is owed a colossal sum from the government, some 11,400 L.
1338 3 January The citizens of Ghent, led by one Jacob van Artevelde, appoint an emergency government for the town, consisting of five captains (one of whom is van Artevelde). They impose controls over food prices, establish a curfew, and take strong steps against public disorder. Bruges and Ypres follow the lead of Ghent.
1338 13 January An English army of 4,000 men under the command of the earls of Arundel and Salisbury lay siege to Dunbar.
1338 Mid January Simon d'Arquèry and Etienne le Galois de la Baume, captains-general of the south west, lay siege to Madallian.
1338   Philippe VI summons his army to meet at Amiens, on 20 March, to march on Flanders. He also dispatches the Bishop of Cambrai of Flanders to negotiate with representatives of Ghent, Bruges and Ypres, and make concessions if necessary.
1338   Henry Burghersh and Edward III's councilors in the Low Countries, having traveled south from Nijmegen as soon as they heard of the Flemish rebellion, are in conference with the newly instituted government of Ghent, Bruges and Ypres at Louvain in Brabant.
1338 End of January Henry Burghersh and the representatives of the Flemish rebellion come to an agreement in principal. The principal towns of Flanders will lend aid to neither side of the conflict, and would not allow the armies of either side to pass through their territories. Flemish ports would no longer be used to ship supplies to Scotland, nor would they be used to harry English shipping, nor would any attempt be made to hinder the movement of the English army up the Scheldt to Antwerp in the summer. In return, the English wool embargo would be raised.
1338 Late January-Early February The English siege of Agen is raised, most probably by force. The English withdraw east, and vanish into Gascony.
1338 February Edward III and his councilors go through the motions of appeasing the Cardinals Bertrand de Montfavence and Pedro Gomez de Barroso, going through the motions of negotiations, and drawing up an outline for a formal truce.
1338   Several prominent Gascon nobles arrive in England in the hopes of convincing Edward III to pay more attention to the Aquitaine theater of the war
1338   Gaston, Count de Foix, invades Tursan with 6,400 men, plus a contingent brought by the Seneschal of Toulouse.
1338 3 February Parliament meets, and while there are some complaints about the questionable fundraising tactics the Crown is involved in, on the principal point Edward III gets the answer he wants. There is to be no truce, this was a voluntary cessation of hostilities, and the Low Countries campaign would go on, unless Philippe VI showed some serious interest in restoring Edward III's lost continental properties. A date is fixed for the expedition's departure, 26 April. Money is to be raised by a forced loan on the wool stocks, up to half of each mans supply to be requisitioned and paid for according to quality, payment to be made in two years.
1338 5 February Gaston, Count de Foix captures Geaune, then bribes the commander of Aire-sur-l'Adour to surrender with an offer of 1,000 livres cash and 50 livres per annum in pension. Once the town surrenders the fortifications are razed.
1338 Mid February Philippe VI appoints one of his financial officials, Nicholas Béhuchet, as Admiral of France. He is a short, fat man, and is said to know more about book-keeping than naval warfare, and is unpopular at court.
1338 26 February Orders are issued for raising an army to go to the Low Countries. The hope is to raise 4,500 men, to muster at Norwich on 12 May.
1338 End of February Agents of the Crown begin to collect the 20,000 sacks of wool that constitute the forced loan Parliament has granted to pay for the Low Countries campaign.
1338 March Members of the staff of Bertrand de Montfavence and Pedro Gomez de Barroso arrive in France with the English proposal for a truce. When presented to Philippe VI, he dismisses out of hand, saying that they are 'insincere, hostile and dangerous to our realm'.
1338   Another deputation of nobles from the Aquitaine arrive in England, again in hopes of convincing Edward III to send more troops and money to the Aquitaine.
1338   The first shipments of wool arrive in Flanders, from Dordrecht, as per the English agreement with the Flemish.
1338   The French campaign in Aquitaine begins. There are two main thrusts, one to invade Saintonge and the north shore of the Gironde, to be commanded by Savary de Vivonne and Jean 'Mouton' de Blainville. The other, to invade the Agenais and the Garonne valley, to be commanded by Simon d'Arquèry and Etienne le Galois de la Baume, captains-general of the south west.
1338 1 March Orders are issued for the raising of an army to go to the Aquitaine, hopefully to raise 1,000 men, to be commanded by William Clinton, Earl of Huntingdon. They are to muster at Portsmouth on 29 April.
1338 5 March Gaston, Count de Foix captures Cazaubon.
1338 11 March Unable to convince or pressure the merchants of the now defunct English Wool Company scheme to have anything to do with the sale of wool overseas, Edward III entrusts the overseas sales of wool to the bankers of the Bardi and Peruzzi families.
1338 16 March Amenieu de Fossat, lord of Madaillan, surrenders to Simon d'Arquèry and Etienne le Galois de la Baume, captains-general of the south west, ending the siege.
1338 20 March The planned muster of the French army set for this date is cancelled. The call to arms to suppress the Flemings was not popular, and met with great resistance, especially in the neighboring provinces.
1338 21 March Outraged at the Flemish agreement with the English, Philippe VI orders the execution of Sohier de Courtrai, still being held in his prisons.
1338   Two French ecclesiastics, acting as Papal commissioners but on orders from the French Government, excommunicate the entire lay population of Ghent.
1338 23 March The Constable and the Marshal of France are ordered to see to the demolition of the walls of Ghent. They are hampered in this due to the fact that the only troops available to them are the garrisons of Tournai and Lille, and some late arriving reinforcements. Additionally there was the Count, who was at Bruges with his own men, and a band of Flemish noblemen desiring to fight for Count and King.
1338 24 March Nicholas Béhuchet leads a fleet of mixed galleys and barges in a raid on Portsmouth. Landing parties burn the whole of the town, with the exception of the church and the hospital.
1338 26 March Nicholas Béhuchet lands his fleet on Jersey and proceeds to destroy buildings and crops on the eastern portion of the island, and nearly takes Gorey castle, the main fortification on the island.
1338 Late March John of Norwich's brother arrives in Bordeaux, with the news of a relieving being on its way, along with a letter from Edward III promising the nobles of the Aquitaine that their loyalty was not in vain.
1338   Oliver Ingham sets about convincing the wavering nobility of the Aquitaine that they can count on, and should fight for, Edward III. Bernard-Aiz d'Albret, who to this point had remained neutral, says he will declare for Edward III.
1338 11 April A group of Flemish nobleman appear before the walls of Ghent. They are driven off when the dykes are opened, flooding them out.
1338 Mid April The captains general of the south west lay siege to Penne, in the Agenais, which mounts a fierce resistance.
1338 Late April Jacob van Artevelde and the militia of Ghent attack the town of Biervliet, which has been occupied by allies of the Count de Flanders, taking it after much bloodshed.
1338   After taking Biervliet, Jacob van Artevelde and the militia of Ghent march to Bruges, where they join forces with the townsmen and fight a fierce battle through the streets and markets of the town with the Count and his men.
1338 Early May Jacob van Artevelde and the militia of Ghent attack Ypres, which was showing signs of wavering commitment to the Flemish revolution. He takes the town and reduces it once again to obedience.
1338 May Henry Burghersh, Bishop of Lincoln, arrives in Paris with a declaration from Edward III to 'Philippe de Valois' and the announcement of the withdrawal of all Plantagenet allegiance and stating his claim to the throne of France. Philippe takes the news well, and, apparently in a good humor, responds 'Bishop, you have performed admirably the task for which you came. Your letters are of such a kind as to need no answer. You may go when you wish.' The Hundred Years War officially begins.
1338   Despite the summons, neither men nor provisions have shown up in Portsmouth for William Huntingdon's expedition to the Aquitaine.
1338   Mathe d'Albret sells her claim to most of the Rudel inheritance, including the strategically important town of Bergerac, to King Edward III of England.
1338 End of May 'Black Agnes' Randolph continues to resist the English laying siege to Dunbar, hurling defiance and abuse from the walls. Edward III has her brother sent north and threatens to execute him, but she ignores this, and Edward does not make good on his threat.
1338 31 May Edward III celebrates Whitsunday at the abbey of Bury St. Edmunds, close to the army at Norwich, taking counsel.
1338 13 June Philippe VI, claiming to be moved by the 'great suffering and hardships of the people of Ghent for want of their trade and livelihood', recognizes defeat in Flanders, pardoning the Flemish townsmen for dealing with the King of England, and formally recognizing their neutrality.
1338   The earls of Salisbury and Arundel lift the siege of Dunbar. Arundel stays in the north to organize the defense of the border, while Salisbury marches south to join the king in East Anglia.
1338 Early June The French army commanded by the captains-general of the south west abandons the siege of Penne.
19 June Short of troops, ships and most especially short of money, Edward III cancels the Aquitaine expedition. While this was militarily negligible, it was politically a disastrous setback, demoralizing the nobles of the region even further.
1338 1 July Edward III appoints Bernard-Aiz d'Albret as joint Seneschal of the Aquitaine. He never takes up any of the duties, and the office is allowed to lapse.
1338 5 July The first shipment of wool leaves England, bound for the Low Countries.
1338 8 July Date for the French Army to gather at Amiens and Marmande.
1338 Early July Oliver Ingham and John of Norwich, having gathered a small army by stripping the garrisons of Bordeaux, Linbourne and Saint-Émeilion and pulling in the retinues of some loyal retainers, break the French siege of Blaye, sweeping down on them in boats and scattering them.
1338 Mid July The French commanders in the south have a general meeting at La Réeole, after which the offensive breaks down into a series of raids in the area of Agen and southern Landes.
1338 16 July Edward III sails from the Orwell to Antwerp.
1338 22 July Edward III lands in Antwerp. He has with a force of some 1,400 men at arms and 3,000 archers, on board 350 ships.
1338 23 July Edward III narrowly escapes death when his lodgings in Antwerp burn down, an accidental fire started by one of his servants
1338 Late July Only 1,846 sacks of wool have been shipped to Antwerp. The initial cause seems to be lack of shipping, and all the ships that brought Edward III and his troops are dispatched back to England to ferry the wool over, at which point it becomes clear that the actual problem is that only 3,000 of the expected 20,000 sacks have actually been gathered. Avoidance of the forced loan had reached masterful levels, with there being a sudden and unexplained shortage of sacks to pack the wool in. Combined with corrupt and/or incompetent bureaucrats, it left Edward III shockingly free of wool to convert to cash. He complains bitterly to Henry Burghersh, saying 'I have been badly advised'.
1338 26 July Philippe VI is informed of the English landing at Antwerp. He summons the French army to muster on 8 August.
1338   Edward, Prince of Wales, presides over a Great Council at Northampton, attended by the prelates and magnates left in England, and representatives of the Commons. A new wool levy is ordered, with each town to supply it in proportion to their tax assessment. Arrangements for its collection were ruthless, and nobody was allowed to say they didn't have any. Those who truly didn't have any were instructed to buy some.
1338   John Stratford, Archbishop of Canterbury and Chancellor of England, along with the Richard Bury, Bishop of Durham, arrive in Antwerp and depart for Paris on a cynical peace mission, mostly to forestall a repeat performance of the Cardinals threats of the previous year.
1344 August The French government orders the search of the homes of all Englishmen in France, and confiscates their weapons.
1338 Early August Montendre surrenders to the French, and is immediately demolished.
1338   The Italian galley fleet hired by the French reaches the Channel, some three months late. While they are too late to prevent the English from crossing to the Low Countries they still represent a major threat to the English lines of supply and communication, and the English go to great lengths to be kept aware of their movements.
1338   In a tense meeting with his German allies, who had all come to Antwerp to both greet him and present accounts, Edward III, empty handed, asks the princes to attack the French at once. Led by the Duke of Brabant and the Count of Hainault, both of whom have become dubious about this enterprise, they reply that they have only brought a ceremonial escort, that their men at arms have yet to be summoned, that they will need to consult their advisors at home, and that it would be best if he could find the money he owes them. They then depart, having fixed a date for the next meeting, 15 August.
1338   After this meeting, Edward III begins to borrow money from any source he can find. He secures a loan from the Bardi and Peruzzi banks for 70,000L., secured by the wool not yet shipped, pressed William de la Pole for every penny he could lend, pawned his Great Crown along with gold and jewelry belonging to rich English monasteries, and sent out agents looking for anyone, Italian, Dutch, Jewish, anything. Interest rates were recorded at up to 50%.
1338   The Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of Durham arrive in Paris and are received by Philippe VI. They have little to say, and none of it quickly, claiming they needed to await further instructions from Edward III in Antwerp. They suggest that Philippe appoint a selection from his council to confer with them at some convenient place and time. Philippe, perhaps himself going through the motions, appoints a committee, and says that the discussions will take place at Arras, close by the Flemish border.
1338 8 August The muster of the French army is not very great. The threat is not treated very seriously, and the arrival of the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of Durham lend credence to the rumor that the whole thing will be solved politically before it devolves to fighting. Philippe VI, in a series of letters written from the Bois de Vincennes, denies the rumors, and encourages further troops to muster.
1338 15 August Edward III meets with his German allies at Mechelen, and is able, through his massive borrowing, to make small installment payments to a few of them, though not all. The princes are not sympathetic to Edward's plight, and tell him they need more time, pointing out that the Emperor is not present, whose approval they would need to have before taking such a weighty step as an invasion of France. Edward bitterly asks them why they hadn't told him that earlier.
1338   Edward III dispatches the Margrave of Juliers to arrange a meeting between himself and Louis of Bavaria, the Holy Roman Emperor, and without waiting for an answer sets off behind him for Coblenz, where Louis is due to be holding a Reichstag in the beginning of September.
1338 23 August The largest food convoy yet from England to Gascony is attacked off Talmont by eighteen galleys from La Rochelle. Two of the convoy's ships, including one of the largest, are captured.
1338 24 August Philippe VI arrives at Amiens, bearing the relic-banner of the French Kings, the Oriflamme.
1338 Last week of August The French army is in position on the northern frontier. The Constable, Raoul d'Eu, is in Tournai, approximately 60 miles from Antwerp, along with the garrison and armed contingents from the town, as well as the Count de Flanders and some refugees from the Flemish rebellion. Some forty miles away, the Bishop of Cambrai had been instructed to see to the defense of his town by the Pope. The main body of the French army is drawn up on the Somme at Amiens and Saint-Quentin.
1338   The Archbishop of Canterbury and the Bishop of Durham, along with a staff of more than 200, settle in at Arras, and begin nominal negotiations. What occupies most of their time, and that of their staff, is intelligence gathering, dispatching regular reports to Antwerp.
1338 30 August Edward III, traveling light and fast with a small group of counselors and a small bodyguard of archers, arrives in Niederwerth am Rhine, north of Coblenz. The bulk of his household, and his baggage travel more slowly by barge.
1338 September Edward III announces as an economy measure that he will stop the salaries of top civil servants, except in verifiable hardship cases. This order is patently ignored.
1338   Mathe d'Albret dies, leaving the remains of the Rudel inheritance to Bernard-Aiz d'Albret. Ling Philippe VI of France immediately demands that d'Albret hand over the properties, and recognizes the claim of the Count of Perigord to the land, and subsequently buys it from him.
1338 3 September John Montgomery arrives in Niederwerth, bringing with him the results of the wild borrowing. He has some 50,000 florins (7,500L.) in coin, and a load of jewelry to be pawned to the local merchants. Edward III, needing to impress, spends the money as if it had been his all along, not recently borrowed at ruinous rates. He proceeds to distribute it liberally amongst Louis of Bavaria's family and councilors, giving 4,000 florins to one important advisor, 2,400 florins for the Empress, and 60 florins for her clerk. For Louis himself, 4,000 florins, making one fifth of what was due to him paid, and a promise to pay the rest in installments, in January and March of 1339.
1338 5 September The Emperor, eased by the payments on his account, sends his barge to bring Edward III into Coblenz. There in an impressive ceremony the electors of the Empire gave their approval of the Emperor's appointing Edward III as Imperial Vicar, investing him with all the powers of the Emperor himself.
1338 8 September Galleys of Monaco, under the command of Marshal of France Robert Bertrand, stage a raid on the Channel Islands, taking Castle Cornet and Jerburgh Castle on the same day. Local seamen put up some resistance, causing the Italians to loose two of their galleys, but in spite of this the French are able to occupy the whole of Guernsey.
1338 15 September The bulk of the French army is sent home, it having become apparent that an attack from the Low Countries is not forthcoming this year, but with orders to be ready to return at short notice. 1,000 mounted men at arms and 5,000 infantry are retained at reduced wages for garrison duty.
1338   Messengers arrive to inform the council of the raids on Gurnsey. The first set had been captured in mid-Channel, and their ship burned.
1338 18 September On his return to Antwerp Edward exercises his new powers, sending out summonses to his German allies, on pain of forfeiture of their fiefs, to attend him and, after hearing the declarations of Coblenz read out to them, to receive his orders.
1338 21 September Battle of Arnemuiden. The French fleet, reinforced from Harfleur, now consisting of 40 galleys and some Norman barges and under the command of the French Admirals Nicholas Béhuchet and Hugh Quiéret, take the Christopher and the Cog Edward, two of Edward III's largest and finest ships, off the island of Walcheren in the Scheldt estuary, after a fierce fight which lasts most of the day. The ships are still loaded with wool and provisions, and are taken to Normandy and entered into French service. The prisoners are all executed, on orders from Admiral Quiéret
1338 24 September Nicolino Fieschi, who had succeeded in hiring two galleys for Edward III for 1338 is sent again to Italy, to attempt to regain some of the money a dishonest solicitor named Sarzana had been given, which had been impounded by the Count de Provence, and to use it himself for hopefully better results.
1338 27 September In reaction to the French raids the Admiralties of England are ordered to put to sea to seek and destroy enemy shipping. This order is only carried out in a desultory fashion by captains tired of the constant requisition of their ships.
1338 5 October The French fleet, under the command of Hugh Quiéret, who has been offering a 100 livre reward for the man who breaches the defenses first, sails up the Solent and raids Southampton. The city is only partly walled, being open on the shore side save for a minimal wooden wall. Resistance was minimal, as the levies for defense had not yet mustered. Most of the townsmen fled into the surrounding countryside. A small group stays, and manages to repulse the first assault, but are unable to repeat their performance with the second, led by Ayton Doria, with 200 men from his galley. They pour into the town and pillage it through the night, taking large amounts of wine, wool and provisions.
1338 6 October Signs of armed resistance begin to appear outside Southampton. Angry villagers congregate outside the landward walls along the roads. The invaders decide to withdraw, setting fire to the town in five places. Between that and the returning townsmen looting what had been left behind the town is almost completely destroyed, and all commerce in the town ceases for nearly a year, and the great trading houses of the Bardi and Peruzzi withdraw, shipping their goods elsewhere.
1338 12 October Edward III meets with his German allies at the town of Herk, in Loon, chosen because it was nearby while not being in the territory of the Duke of Brabant. There, with his throne set up on a butchers counter, he received the loyal oaths of the princes, and told them the plans for the coming campaign. The campaign in the Cambrésis would begin in July. To put a fine legal point on it, the Bishop of Cambrai, the Bishop of Liège and the Count of Flanders were summoned, on pain of forfeiture, to appear before Edward III, as Imperial Vicar, at Mechelen on 26 October.
1338 26 October Edward III and his German allies assemble at Mechelen. The bishops of Cambrai and Liège, and likewise the Count of Flanders fail to show up, and therefore are technically subject to the attacks about to be visited upon them.
1338 Winter Edward III begins offering serious incentives to the Flemings in an attempt to convince them to ally with him, including the revocation of the penal clauses of their treaties with Philippe the Fair and the restoration of the castles of Walloon Flanders and the ancient privileges of the Flemish towns. He makes these promises as King of France, and contingent on his successfully pressing his claim to the throne. These proposals fail to induce the Flemings into alliance.
1338 Early November Edward III moves his household for the winter, where the Queen joins him. The troops are dispersed in several towns throughout Brabant, Hainault and Flanders, where many of them desert and try to make their way home 'for want of food to eat' and the rest wear out their welcome with heavy drinking, theft and violence.
1338   The French fleet retires for the winter, having in a short time spread panic throughout southern England, with wild rumors flying about planned raids on the Isle of Sheppy, the Kent coast, the Medway ports and London itself, and that these raids were the first signs of an impending invasion in great force by the French.
1338   Philippe VI and his council at Vincennes decide to make a serious effort to invade the Aquitaine. The plan was to concentrate on the principal fortresses of the English, beginning with Penne in the Aenais, and not to fritter away their forces with raids to little effect. Political direction and civil power over the campaign is given to John of Luxembourg, King of Bohemia, and to ensure his enthusiastic participation, Gaston, Count de Foix was paid off, in land, all the arrears for past services. He is sent immediately to invest Penne, along with Le Galois de la Baume, one of the captains-general from the summer, and another Savoyard, Pierre de la Palu.
1338 November The remainder of the French army is dispersed. Godemar du Fay is given command of Tournai, the left bank of the Scheldt, and the western section of the Hainault march, with a strong army of Picards and Normans at Tournai, and reinforcements at Mortagne, Douai and Arleux. The Count d'Auxerre is given command of the Cambrésis, and the march of Flanders is guarded by more than a dozen garrisons. Those parts of Normandy and Brittany which are thought vulnerable to English attack are also garrisoned.
1338 Mid November Gaston, Count de Foix and the Savoyard captains arrive in the south west, and set up their headquarters at Marmande.
1338 20 November Edward III, possibly informed by the spies of John Stratford, Archbishop of Canterbury, attempts a diversion in the north, in hopes of canceling the French invasion of the Aquitaine. He suddenly issues orders for his German allies to assemble in Hainault, between the towns of Mons and Binche, on 18 December, informing them that from there they would march immediately and in force on the French.
1338 23 or 24 November Edward III summons the Bishop of Cambrai before him in his capacity as imperial Vicar to answer serious charges of treason.
1338 Late November In response to Edward III's actions the garrison at Tournai is reinforced with troops led by Philippe VI's cousin, the King of Navarre, and the Prince, Jean de Normandy, raises a force at Peronne, on the Somme.
1338 29 November Lionel, third son of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault is born at Anwerp in Flanders
1338 Early December John of Bohemia leaves Paris for the Garonne valley, to take up command of the army invading the Aquitaine.
1338 December Negotiations between the French and English, which have continued pointlessly throughout the summer and fall under the chairmanship of Cardinals Bertrand de Montfavence and Pedro Gomez de Barroso are moved from Arras to Paris. The Cardinals have put forth a series of proposals, which have all been rejected by the French, or the English, or both.
1337   The silver coinage of France is devalued.
1339   In an attempt to throw off the control imposed on him by the towns, the Count of Flanders leads an uprising in western Flanders.
1338   In the opening of what is to become a continuing skirmish between Edward III and those officials he has left behind to rule the country while he is gone, Edward summarily dismisses his Treasurer, Robert Woodhouse. Woodhouse confides in a friend 'May God be pleased that I shall never again serve a master who has so little interest in my efforts and so little concern with the burdens that I carry for him'.
1338 Mid December William, Count of Hainault, crosses into Cambrai and lays waste to a swathe of land north of the city. Several of the bishop's granges and windmills were destroyed, and several castles, within a mile of Cambrai itself, were seized by surprise. Count William left a garrison in them when he withdrew.
1338   John of Bohemia arrives in the south west. He and the other commanders begin to lay siege to Penne and the tower of Castelgaillard, which guards the approach. The army is not large, consisting of the personal retinues of it's commanders, some 1,200 men raised by the Count d'Armagnac, and a train of German siege engineers.
1338 19 December The French army on the Flemish march is once again reduced to garrison strength. None of Edward III's allies other then the Count of Hainault had answered his summons, and it became clear that it had been either a diversion or a failure.
1338 Late December The town of Penne, having sent several messages to Oliver Ingham and gotten no reply, faced with no relief in sight and unwilling to suffer an assault, surrenders. The commander of the town garrison, a Béarnese mercenary named Fortanier d'Esguarrepaque is offered an enormous bribe of 14,000 livres to bring the town and the castle over to the French. This plan backfires, however, when the men of the garrison go to reinforce the castle which continues its resistance, and Fortanier runs off with the money.
1338   Etienne le Galois de la Baume and his Savoyards are left to blockade the castle of Penne while the main body of the French army marches towards Bordeaux.
1338   The French build to floating pontoon bridges over the Garonne, at La Reole and Marmande. Another is built later at Le Mas d'Agenais. They also create a fleet of forty-two barges on the river, some with siege equipment.
1338 26 December Fortanier d'Esguarrepaque is found in the Bordeaux area, and promptly shut up by Oliver Ingham's men in the gatehouse of Chateau de l'Ombrière.
1339

1339   Edward III agents succeed in hiring a number of galleys in Aigues-Mortes and Nice, but agents of Philippe VI out bid them and buy them out from under him.
1339   The French create forty-five new garrisons throughout the Garonne and Dordogne valleys.
1339   Despite his desire to remove the papacy back to Rome pope Benedict XII is convinced by the cardinals that living in faction torn Italy would be impossible. He is also talked out of moving the court to Bologna, and instead begins a massive palace building project at Avignon.
1339 January The French build up their strength in the south west to 5,700 men.
1339   The Count of Flanders' uprising fails and he is forced to flee, half dressed in the middle of the night, to Artois. He spends most of the remainder of the year at the court of Philippe VI.
1339 February At Parliament, which was called to consider the defense of the realm, the debate is mostly about the purveyance of supplies, which has become a major issue at home. It also calls for service at sea from a large number of ports, to produce, in theory, a fleet of 31 ships at Orwell, and another of 111, in two squadrons, one at Portsmouth and one at Winchelsea. The southern fleet seems to have never appeared, however, as subsequent events show.
1339   The French army, having descended on Caumont, the only English garrison north of Saint-Macaire, late in the year with siege train and armed barges, take the town.
1339   The Genoese and Normans return to their ships, to prepare for putting to sea in March. Rumor amongst the English has it that they intend to raid heavily on the coast of East Anglia. In actuality one part of the fleet is to do just that, and another to attack the Channel Islands again, and then proceed to Garonne valley, to aid the campaign there.
1339   An anonymous poet rails against the war, the government and the great magnates who vote taxes to pay for their schemes. 'He who takes money from the needy without just cause is a sinner'.
1339   Robert d'Artois is smuggled from England by royal officials to the Low Countries, where he conceals himself in Brussels.
1339 March The French army lays siege to Puyguilhem, on the border of the Agenais, bringing up reinforcements, additional siege engines and a corps of sappers to undermine the walls. This siege is the first recorded use of cannon during the Hundred Years War.
1340   King Philippe of France travels south to encourage Bernard-Aiz d'Albret, who is being hard pressed by threats and enticements from Olivier ingham and the English, to continue in the French service.
1339 9-11 March The Channel Islands/Aquitaine fleet, consisting of 17 galleys of Carlo Grimaldi, 35 or so Norman Barges and the cog Christopher, all under the command of Robert Bertrand, Marshal of France, set sail from the mouth of the Seine, bound for Jersey. The second fleet, under the command of Ayton Doria, make way for Sluys.
1339 12 March Robert Bertrand's fleet lands on Jersey, and he demands the surrender of Gorey Castle. The castle, fully garrisoned with 260 English troops and about 40 local men, defies him, saying that the castle 'would not be given up so long as there were ten men alive in it'.
1339 Between 12 and 16 March Robert Bertrand makes an assault on Gorey Castle, but it fails.
1339 16 March Robert Bertrand and his fleet sail to Guernsey, still in French control. He uses some of his troops to reinforce the garrison there, and sails on to La Rochelle, with a large commercial convoy.
1339 23 March At Vincennes, Philippe VI and the communities of Normandy come to an agreement on a vast and improbable plan to invade England. The Normans agree to supply an army of 24,000 men, including 4,000 cavalry and 5,000 archers, along with ships to transport them. The command was to be given to the Prince, Jean, Duke de Normandy, and the force was thought to be enough to conquer England in 12 weeks. They were to receive in return all the land in England save for the royal domains, which were to go to the Duke de Normandy; the domains of the papacy, which were to be undisturbed; and 20,000L. worth of land reserved for the English church.
1339 24 March Ships from the fleet of Ayton Doria arrive off Harwich, a fishing town near Orwell. The land and set fire to the town in three places, while the townsmen mount a fierce resistance. Unable to take the place, or even do any serious damage (the fires were blown out by the wind) they get back on their ships and sail off.
1339 late March Jean de Marigny, Bishop of Beauvais, is appointed King's lieutenant for the southern army, replacing John of Bohemia.
1340   King Philippe VI of France once again travels south to encourage d'Albret to continue in the French cause.
1339 early April The northern fleet ordered by the February Parliament gathers in the North Sea, under the command of Sir Robert Morley, with John Crabbe, a Flemish pirate captured by Walter Mauny, as his second in command. This convoy of 63 ships, loaded with reinforcements for Edward III's continental army, wool and money, sets sail for the continent. Off the coast of Flanders they locate and attack a French convoy, under escort of some Genoese galleys, driving them into the harbor as Sluys, where the galleys are unable to maneuver, due to the confined space. The English take many of the convoy ships as prizes, and indiscriminately attack the ships in the harbor, including a large Spanish carrack. The action causes international incidents, and embarrassment for Edward III, who had to pay £23,000 in compensation.
1339 6 April The commander of Puyguilhem gives up waiting for relief and surrenders to the French.
1339 10 April Having exhausted all supplies, the garrison commander of Castelgalliard surrenders to the French.
1339 17 April Deprived of the support of Castelgalliard and also having drained all supplies, Penne surrenders to the French.
1339 20 April A fleet of galleys from La Rochelle, commanded by the Admiral of France and the Seneschal of Saintonge, attack Blaye from the lightly fortified river side of the town, taking the town by surprise. The town falls to the French with only minor casualties, and is pillaged and burned.
1339 Late April Repeating their action with the galley fleet, Bourg is taken by the French, placing the whole north shore of the Gironde in French hands. Bérard d'Albret, one of Edward III's most loyal and able commanders, is taken prisoner, and sent to the Temple in Paris.
1339 23 April The Norman invasion plan agreed to at Vincennes is ratified by the Estates of Normandy. The English, informed of the plan, react seriously, appointing the Earl of Huntingdon commander in Kent, the Earl of Surrey in Sussex, and the Earl of Arundel in Hampshire. The Earl of Oxford is made responsible for the defense of London and the Essex coast, and as large a reserve army as is possible is raised inland and placed under the nominal command of Edward the Prince of Wales. Southampton, Portsmouth and Porchester are heavily re-enforced, as is the Isle of Wight.
1339   Jean de Marigny arrives to take command of the southern French forces in Languedoc.
1339   Blaye is retaken by the English, but they are unable to hold on to it, and the French take it again.
1339 Spring Having spent most of his money, Edward III pledges the years wool crop, and pawns the remaining crown jewels to pay his troops.
1339   The northern fleet, on its return to Orwell, quarrels over the division of the booty from the Flemish raid, as a result of which part of the fleet mutinies, and sails off.
1339 May Edward III repeats his order that the salaries of top civil servants be stopped, but rescinds the order when he is informed that if it is carried out all of his civil servants will resign in a body.
1339   The Scots lay siege to Perth
1339 mid May The Norman invasion force being unready, the naval squadron sails north to harry the English coast.
1339 15 May The French fleet appears off Southampton. Unable to find an undefended place to land, they withdraw and sail west, cruising around Land's End and into the Bristol channel, raiding merchant shipping with impunity.
1339 20 May The French fleet arrives off Plymouth. Seizing and burning the merchant vessels in the harbor, including seven ships from Bristol, who were hiding there from the French raiders, they then fall upon the town and begin to set fire to it. They are at that point repulsed by aged (64) but still active Hugh Courtenay, Earl of Devon, who brought the Devon levies to the defense of the town. After a brief, fierce but indecisive skirmish the French retire to their ships and sail away.
1339 21 May The date of 22 July is fixed for the French army to gather at Compiègne
1339 24 May The French fleet lands on the Isle of Wight, but cannot hold their position, and retire. Attempts at landings at Dover, Folkestone and the Isle of Thanet are abandoned in the face of heavy English garrisons.
1339 27 May The French fleet appears off Hastings. Landing apparently unopposed, they burn much of the town, including three churches, invade the castle, and plunder the canons of their alter plate and ornaments.
1339   Edward III receives fresh troops from England.
1339   In an attempt at pro-war propaganda, commissioners are sent out to lecture provincial officials about the threat posed by the French, and to attempt to ease their discontent.
1339 end of May Jean de Marigny takes command of all French royal forces in the south, announcing his intention of attacking Bordeaux.
1339 Summer Upon return to port, the Genoese element of the French fleet begins to disintegrate. Despite the fact that the French government had paid Ayton Doria regularly, he had apparently not paid his sailors, or had paid them only after making unreasonable deductions from said pay. The crews mutinied for their pay, and sent a delegation to king Philippe VI to plead their cause. He was unsympathetic, arresting and imprisoning them, which caused a more general mutiny among the remaining ships, who sailed immediately for Genoa, along with two ships from Carlo Gimaldi's squadron, thus functionally reducing the French Naval force by two thirds.
1339   Flemish forces begin to collect in the Lys valley, preparatory to an attempt to seize Lille.
1339 June William Douglas and Hugh Hautpoul, a French privateer, sail from France in five oared galleys, carrying the first French troops to fight in Scotland, consisting of Scots at the court of the exiled King David, and several French knights and their retinues.
1339   Rumors of the continuing association between Edward III and Robert d'Artois reach the court at Avignon, enraging Edward III's Imperial allies, to whom he'd promised that he would distance himself from d'Artois.
1339   Archbishop Stratford leaves the peace conference in Arras and joins Edward III in Brabant to present his report on the thus far completely fruitless proceedings.
1339 20 June King Edward III leaves Antwerp and marches on Vilvoorde, where he camps waiting for his Imperial allies.
1339 July The Earl of Warwick inspects the garrison and defenses of Southampton and finds them wholly inadequate, estimating that 200 men at arms could take the town at will.
1339   A list of five preliminary conditions for continued negotiations, prepared by Edward III and Archbishop Stratford, is delivered to the conference at Arras by two chancery clerks. These include immediate cessation of French aid to the Scots, and a withdrawal from all territory the French had taken in Gascony in the past year. The conditions, which are described by the Pope as seeming more like the result of negotiations, rather than their preliminaries, are rejected by King Philippe VI, and the conference comes to an end.
1339   The French admirals, along with the fleets of Ayton Doria and Carlo Grimaldi, a combined fleet of 67 vessels, gather at Boulogne, for a massive raid on the Cinque Ports.
1339   Edward III is forced to repeat his promise to distance himself from Robert d'Artois, and to send him away from the court of his sister the Countess of Namur where he'd been residing.
1339 early July William Douglas and Hugh Hautpoul use their small fleet to close off the Firth of Tay, cutting off supplies to Perth and Cupar. The commander of Cupar castle surrendered, and, after receiving a large bribe, swears homage to David II.
1339 6 July Jean de Marigny launches his attack on Bordeaux, with between 12,000 and 15,000 men falling on the city from two directions. The main army, under the command of de Marigny and the Count de Foix from the south up the Garonne valley, and the rest coming in from Périgord and Saintonge and approaching the northern side of the city. An immediate assault is made which, despite initial success due to traitors within the city opening a gate, is ultimately repulsed in intense street fighting by Oliver Ingham, who is commanding the city forces. The French proceed to invest the city for siege.
1339 11 July King Philippe VI defers the gathering of the French northern army from July 22 to 15 August.
1339 about 13 July Due to inadequate provisions for a long siege, a lack of stores on site and inadequate equipment to bring in any more supplies, some of the army besieging Bordeaux is sent away.
1339 19 July The French, having inadequate provisions and no siege equipment, lift the siege of Bordeaux.
1339 20 July Under the command of admiral Béhuchet the French fleet sails from Boulogne, for Sandwich. Finding the Kent levies there, they turned aside and landed at Rye, where they landed men and did a great deal of damage before the ships of the northern admiralty and the Cinque Ports, under sir Robert Morley arrived at Rye Bay. As a result of a spreading panic amongst the French and Italian fleets, who mistakenly believed the English fleet numbered 400 ships when it really was closer to 100, the French fleet withdrew and, after an inconclusive confrontation at sea off Wissant that did not result in actual battle, retired in safety to their ports.
1339 23 July A second son, Louis, is born to King Jean of France and Bonne of Luxembourg at Vincennes.
1339   A force of 1,300 men is raised in the northern counties to relieve the siege of Perth, but in the end does nothing but ineffectually maneuver around the edges.
1339   Faced with little or no opposition, Robert Morley spends the remainder of July and August raiding the French coast, sacking the town of Ault and destroying the harbor, as well as Le Treport, who's inhabitants thought they were a Spanish merchant convoy, and thus put up no resistance. They also sacked the village of Mers before proceeding around the Breton cape and burning harbors in Poitou. Encouraged by the English action, a Flemish fleet sacked and burned Dieppe in Normandy.
1339 end of July Rumors of the Flemish troop buildup are circulating in Paris. Troops are diverted to Lille from Tournai to guard against the possibility of a Flemish attack. The Flemish assure Philippe VI that they have no aggressive plans, but are not believed, and are almost assuredly making their plans in collusion with the English.
1339 14 August Edward III issues bonds to his Imperial allies in lieu of actual payment, to be paid September 1339, or their obligations to him will be cancelled. He is forced within a week to admit that there is no hope of their actually being paid.
1339 17 August The French and Scottish forces having drained the moat and begun to undermine the walls, the starving garrison of Perth surrenders. Sir Thomas Oughtred and his men receive safe conduct and depart. Sir Thomas is called to answer for the surrender at the next Parliament, but defended himself well and was acquitted.
1339 19 August Edward III tells the Margrave of Juliers 'Our resources are so stretched by the cost of our own men that we cannot take the field against the enemy'. He further states that he would lead his own army into France without them, confront the French himself, and if killed would at least have died with honor.
1339 second half of August Edward III is in Brussels, negotiating with his Imperial allies and trying desperately to raise money. The last of the wool crop was sold at a very bad price, and while he redeemed some £2400 of his pawned jewelry with another loan from the Bardi and Peruzzi, he immediately pawned it again. His Imperial allies agree to follow him and accept deferred installment payments, on condition that he remain in the Low Countries, with the greatest men of his court, until all the creditors have been satisfied, and further agreeing that six knights of his retinue should be kept as hostages, with four earls, six barons and three bishops as guarantors. Further, to protect their interests, the Margrave of Juliers is sworn onto the King's council, and the allies agree to muster at Mons, in Hainault, on 15 September, 1339.
1339   Philippe VI delays the mustering of his army until 8 September.
1339 September A popular revolt in Genoa ousts the ruling Guelph and Ghibelline aristocratic families and places power in the hands of Simon Boccanegra, a popular demagogue. This seems to have been driven mainly by the disgruntled sailors of the fleet of Ayton Doria, returned home after the mutiny at Boulogne, placing the government of Genoa in hands unfriendly to the French.
1339 early September Edward III has a series of secret meetings with Jacob van Artevelde's brother, John.
1339 second week September Edward III marches out of Brussels, towards Mons.
1339 11 September King Philippe VI receives the Oriflamme from the Abbot of Saint Denis, preparatory to marching against the English.
1339 13 September Edward III arrives at Mons, making his headquarters in a Cistercian nunnery near the town. There he awaits his allies, still negotiating with both them and his other creditors, and trying to raise money. He is saved from the utter ruin of his plans, and the embarrassment of his allies mutinying on the territory of a friendly ruler, by the efforts of William de la Pole, who raises enough money to pay the most strident of the allies.
1339 18 September Edward III arrives at Valenciennes. Impatient for action, Walter Mauny and 50 men go raiding in eastern Hainault and Ostrevant, pillaging and burning Mortagne and other towns.
1339 20 September Edward III and his Imperial allies (except the Emperor and the Duke of Brabant, who had not yet arrived) march out of Valenciennes, along the Scheldt and into the Cambrésis and immediately investing Cambrai for siege and capturing Thun-l'Evêque, who's commander accepted a bribe from sir Walter Mauny. Edward establishes his camp at Marcoing, between the city and any possible French relief.
1339 late September King Philippe VI receives news at Compiègne of the attack on Cambrai, but, not wanting to antagonize the Emperor by invading his territory, moves his army only as far as Noyon, and then Pérrone, on the borders of the Cambrésis. Edward III responds by pressing the siege with renewed energy, making an abortive attempt to take the town by storm, as well as raiding and burning the surrounding countryside, hoping to being the French army to the city's relief.
1339   Alarmed by the Flemish troops at Lille, which are still being reinforced, Philippe VI sends Louis de Nevers, Count of Flanders, back to Flanders to attempt to regain control of the county. It is a pointless effort, for though the Count is grandly and graciously received, he is almost immediately a prisoner of Jacob van Artevelde, and has no influence on matters.
1339 30 September The Duke of Brabant finally arrives at Cambrai, with a force of 1,200 men.
1339 Autumn Oliver Ingham, in the conclusion of a plan he had been pursuing since 1337, recruits Bernard-Aiz d'Albret to the English cause
1339 early October William II, Count of Hainault, withdraws his support from Edward III. While he is in favor of and has a real interest in capturing the castles and towns of French influenced areas of the Cambrésis, he is reluctant to aid in an invasion of France proper, not desiring to loose his extensive holdings for which he is a vassal of the French king. He leaves to join the French army, but most of the nobility of Hainault remains in the English camp, and his brother, John of Hainault, continues to serve as a marshal in Edward III's service.
1339 9 October Abandoning the fruitless siege of Cambrai, Edward III and his Imperial allies march into France proper, pillaging a twenty mile wide stretch of the countryside as they go. Edward III establishes his headquarters at the nunnery at Mont-Saint-Martin, 10 miles north of Saint-Quentin.
1339 10 October Edward III attacks the castle of Honnecourt, but withdraws after the garrison, reinforced by the Constable of France and some men meant to reinforce Cambrai, put up a vigorous defense.
1339   The cardinals from the peace conference at Arras arrive under safe conduct to make another attempt to negotiate peace. It is a doomed attempt, and when it fails they attempt to further delay Edward III by telling him he should wait for more of his Imperial allies because 'The Kingdom of France is surrounded by a thread of silk which not even the whole strength of England will break.' Cardinal Bertrand de Montfavence is escorted by Chief Justice Scrope to the top of a tall tower, and shown the countryside burning for fifteen miles around in every direction, is asked by Scrope 'Do you not think that this thread of silk about France is already broken?', upon which de Montfavence fainted.
1339   Philippe VI leaves Noyon to join the main army at Pérrone, accompanied by the King of Bohemia and six French dukes, along with their household troops, arriving to find Pérrone full of troops, refugees and bad news, including an ultimatum from the Duke of Brabant read by a messenger so embarrassed by his masters deception that he left his service and accepted a pension from Philippe VI. Also there is William II of Hainault, who receives an extremely cold reception from Philippe VI, who ask if he has come to betray him, tells him he will consider his case in due course, and curtly dismisses him.
1339 12 October As part of a diversion originally scheduled to coincide with Edward III's movements in the north, Oliver Ingham and Bernard-Aiz d'Albret march out of Bordeaux with a small army, and up the Garronne valley.
1339 13 October Oliver Ingham arrives outside Langon, hoping to surprise it. He finds it instead well garrisoned, and his attack is repulsed.
1339   Parliament opens in Westminster Hall, faced with a large number of national problems. Archbishop Stratford, who had been sent back from France to attempt to convince what was sure to be an unruly assembly, delivers a long speech detailing how the king has come to his current financial straits, revealing that the kings debt has reached £300,000, or the equivalent of ten years ordinary revenue. While both houses agree that the king needs a great deal of money, their subsequent actions differ. The Lords proposed a tax of a tenth of one years produce of corn, wool and lambs, but the Commons, angry about purveyance (the right of the Crown to requisition goods and services for royal use), balk, and demanded reforms. In response, the current chief purveyor was arrested and put in the Fleet prison, and all outstanding purveyance warrants were cancelled.
1339 14 October Edward III leaves Mont-Saint-Martin to join his forces drawn up on the plain east of Pérrone. The French and English armies are within a mile of each other by evening, and the French decide that they will give battle in the morning, but Edward III, informed of this decision by his spies, rapidly withdraws east, towards the Oise.
1339 16 October Edward III crosses the Oise, and takes Origny, burning the whole town, including the nunnery and the Benedictine abbey, and established his camp in the ruins.
1339   A contingent of 500 men, under the Earls of Derby, Salisbury and Northampton, as well as John of Hainault, lead raids into French territory in the Serre valley for desperately needed supplies, burning Crécy-en-Laonnais, the Marle suburbs, and at least fifteen other towns.
1339 17 October Edward III's Imperial allies come to him saying that they would leave him, rather than starve for want of supplies. He offers to feed them out of his own stores, and tells them to mount their infantry on his cart horses, and raid into territory that had not yet been stripped of food.
1339   Le Galois de la Baume sends a letter to a kinsman of his in the English camp, formally challenging Edward III to battle on the Thursday or Friday following, the 21 or 22 October. The challenge is accepted.
1339 21 October Edward III camps his army between La Capelle and La Flamengrie.
1339   A deputation of Flemings, led by the unwilling Count Louis de Nevers, leaves Ghent with an ultimatum for King Philippe VI, saying that unless he returns the three castelries they will attack Lille.
1339 22 October Philippe VI camps his army at Buirenfosse, four miles from the English.
1339   Edward III captures three French spies, who inform him that the French were intending to attack on the next day (23 October)
1339 23 October Edward III draws his army up for battle on a rise near La Flamengrie. Placing archers on his flanks, he dismounts the whole army and places them behind a trench, in three lines. The Duke of Brabant promises 1,000 florins to whoever would be the first to bring him a piece of the Oriflamme, even if it were no bigger than a man's palm, and a number of squires are knighted by the kings hand, including John Chandos.
1339   King Philippe VI receives detailed information on the English dispositions from some captured German knights. A heated debate breaks out in the king's tent as to whether to give battle at all. King Philippe VI decides not to attack, but to let the English do so, and orders the vanguard of the French army to fall back and dig in.
1339   Edward III's Imperial allies, now faced with attacking a larger army dug into prepared positions, balk at further action. They claim a moral victory, saying they had burned large tracts of France and king Philippe had been able to do nothing about it. Around 5 o'clock they marched away north, abandoning the campaign. King Philippe, upon their withdrawal, removes himself to Saint-Quentin.
1339 somewhere around this time The Flemish delegation reaches the King of France. With the pressure of the English invasion removed, King Philippe VI rejects the Flemish demands. This places the Flemings in a difficult position, as they have now broken totally with the French, but no longer have the implied aid of the English invasion.
1339 24 October The French army marches to Saint-Quentin, to be paid off and dismissed.
1339 28 October The Commons, having deliberated, say that the amount the king needs is so great that they have to consult with their communities before agreeing to taxation, and that the issue should be raised at the next Parliament, but that they hoped God would continue to favor the king with victory. Upon this, Parliament disperses.
1339   Edward III arrives in Brussels, where he spends the next week jousting with his friends and remaining allies, and trying to make new plans. He sends letters to the three principal town of Flanders inviting them to send representatives to a conference of his allies.
1339 end of October Faced with major French opposition Oliver Ingham is forced to retire southward. He makes an attempt ay Toulouse, but cannot do any real damage.
1339 Winter French agents in Genoa manage to hire some crossbowmen and a small fleet of galleys, but these are subsequently bought off by the English, possibly through the agency of Edward III's Genoese Constable of Bordeaux, Niccolo Usomare, who scrape together 1,100 marks from the Bardi bank and pay this to the Genoese shipmasters to do nothing.
1339 November Robert d'Artois, who had remained quietly in Namur despite the command of Edward III that he leave, is smuggled back to England.
1339   Agents of the French government conclude an agreement with the city of Cambrai, agreeing to station 600 men there for its defense, and that the King would undertake responsibility for the maintenance of the cities fortifications, and supply it's field artillery, including 10 cannons.
1339 11 November Walter Mauny's brother, who had been captured in the vicinity of Cambrai, is lynched by a mob as he is being brought through the gates of the city.
1339 12 November Edward III holds a conference of his allies at Antwerp. Subsequent to this conference the Duke of Brabant and six English councilors are empowered to negotiate a treaty with the Flemings, giving them back all of their ancient rights, and restoring the borders of the county to its ancient extent, in return for their alliance.
1339 22 November A review of Edward III's finances shows him in immediate need of £40,000. Only a small part of this sum can be raised, and Edward III grand celebrations in proclaiming himself King of France alternate with dealing with increasingly insistent demands for payment of his debts.
1339 December Unable to do any real damage in the south, Oliver Ingham returns to Bordeaux.
1339   The garrison of Cambrai, reinforced with citizen militia and siege weapons, make raids on the English held castles around the city, attacking Escaudoevres and destroying the town, and then burning the manor at Relenghes.
1339 3 December The Duke of Brabant attends a congress of representatives of the towns of Flanders and Brabant, concluding both an offensive and defensive alliance between Flanders and Brabant, and negotiating around the practical considerations of an English alliance.
1339 mid December The Count of Flanders, determined not to be party to a treaty with the English king, feigns acceptance but arranges with his wife to write him a letter saying she's dying, which he reads to the Council of Flanders in order to get permission to visit her in France. He leaves and, once safely in Paris, does not return.
1339 end of December The Flemings conclude their negotiations and present their terms to Edward III, chief amongst them is their insistence that he proclaim himself King of France, which they feel will protect them from Papal interdict, and other repercussions.
1339   The garrison at Cambrai attacks Cimay, and, while failing to take the town. destroy five towns in the vicinity before retiring. The Count of Hainault, whose lands these are, protests to King Philippe VI, asking him to restrain his men. Philippe, still angry with the Count for his previous alliance with England, instead commends his troops.
1339 End of the year, date uncertain. The count d'Armagnac begins a short private war against the count de Foix by attacking Miramont. "Enormous excesses" are committed by both combatants, and in the end Miramont in the end is placed under royal protection.
1340

1340 Early January English ships from the Cinque Ports capture a French ship out of Boulogne. When the merchants on board are questioned in England, they reveal that 18 ships of the French galley fleet are lying aground under very light guard.
1340 3 January Edward III appoints Bernard-Aiz d'Albret and Hugh of Geneva as his lieutenants in Aquitaine, with authority to exercise in his name all the powers he possessed in the Duchy.
1340 4 January At Antwerp Edward III concludes negotiations with the Flemings for their alliance, and agrees to assume the title of King of France. Edward cedes to them not only the three disputed castelries but also Artois, which had been separated from the county for over a century, and the Tournasis, which had never been a part of Flanders. He promises that Bruges will be a compulsory staple town for the English wool export for at least fifteen years, and that Flemish merchants could trade in England without duties or restrictions. Additionally they agree that the sea lanes between England and the Low Countries will be protected by a combined fleet of English, Flemish and Brabantine ships, and that allied armies would gather in June for an attack Tournai, the Flemings agreeing to produce 80,000 troops in return for a subsidy of £140,000. Edward also agrees not to make a peace, or truce, or even to enter into negotiations with Philippe VI without their consent.
1340 @ 14 January English ships, under cover of a heavy mist, raid Boulogne, taking the lower town and destroying the ships in the harbor. They are eventually driven off with heavy losses, but not before burning all 18 galleys, along with their entire supply of sails, ropes and weapons, as well as 24 merchant ships in the harbor.
1340 19 January Parliament meets in England, opened by Archbishop Stratford, in the Kings continued absence. In no mood to be generous with the King's desperate financial state, they say they need time to discuss the matter, and defer any answer for a month.
1340 22 January At Antwerp Edward III takes delivery of new banners displaying the arms of France with those of England. He then leaves for Ghent, with the pregnant queen, his household, and the Dukes of Brabant and Guelders.
1340 23 January A meeting between the English royal council and shipmasters from the principal English ports lays down naval strategy for the coming year, which is subsequently approved by Parliament, then in session. The west country ports agree to supply seventy ships of at least one hundred tons, and contribute what they could afford to the cost. The Cinque Ports agreed to provide twenty ships of the same tonnage, and the city of London agreed to nine, with the cost of these to be shared between the king and the community.
1340 26 January At the Friday market in Ghent Edward III, on a platform decked with the new banners and surrounded by his court and the magistrates of the three great towns of Flanders, asked the crowd if the accepted him as King of England and France, and would obey him as such. The magistrates of the town swore that they would, and those holding fiefs from the crown of France swore fealty to him, including Guy of Flanders, brother to the Count. Edward III swore on the gospels to uphold the liberties of his subjects, and the main articles of the treaty are read out to the crowd.
1340 late January King Philippe VI imposes strict economic sanctions on Flanders, stopping all movement of goods across the border, and freezing all debts owed to merchants in Flanders.
1340   King Philippe VI decrees a 'Great Army of the Sea', to consist of 200 of the largest ships that could be raised from his own resources, or requisitioned from the ports of Normandy and Picardy.
1340   English ships raid Dieppe.
1340 February Edward III sends proclamations out from Ghent into Flanders and France promising as King of France to restore the good laws and customs of Saint Louis, end the devaluation of the coinage, and be bound by the advice and consent of the nobility.
1340   Subsidies voted for the French crown's war efforts begin to arrive, swelling the coffers, and fresh subsidies are voted by the nobility, as well as by 32 towns voting a sales tax to support the war. Paris votes a grant of 20,000 l.t., and commissioners are sent out to acquire loans from rich bourgeois and monastic houses.
1340 12 February The English government ordered all of the vessels promised at the meeting of 23 January to assemble at Dartmouth and Winchelsea by 26 March.
1340   Collection of the tax in Normandy to pay for Philippe VI's 'Great Army of the Sea'. This levy is expected to raise some 300,000 l.t.
1340 19 February In an acrimonious session of the reassembled Parliament the Lords votes a tax of a tenth of their grain, wool and lambs, but Commons produces a long list of grievances, and state that while in principal they are willing to vote a tax of 30,000 sacks of wool, they demand certain concessions before doing so. These include not only an inquiry into the embezzlement of past taxes, but a committee of the Commons to supervise the spending of future tax revenues. At the instance of the Lords they reluctantly agree, for the immediate defense of the realm, and to raise a fleet to defend the coast, to a tax of 2,500 sacks of wool. The ministers, without authority to agree to the Commons terms, send messages to Edward III, and the Parliament breaks up.
1340 24 February King Philippe VI orders that anyone found carrying copies of Edward III's proclamations be arrested and punished as a traitor. Inspectors were to check every church door and public square to see it was not posted, and if they found any they were to be torn down and burned.
1340 Late February Edward III, in debt for over £300,000, seeks permission from his creditors to return to England to raise money. The creditors, informed that Edward III's presence in person is the only way Parliament is likely to vote a grant, agree, on condition that his pregnant wife and two children, Edward and Lionel, remain in Ghent, as well as the Earls of Suffolk and Salisbury, and that he would return with both money and an army no later than 1 July, 1340.
1340 21 February King Edward III sails from Sluys for England, landing at Harwich on the same day, where he summons a new Parliament to meet at Westminster on 29 March. He also appoints twelve commissioners from the most influential councilors to raise loans for him, and meets with and browbeats the principal potential lenders in person, shaking down the corporation of London for £5,000.
1340 Early March Hugh of Geneva arrives in Gascony.
1340 6 March Orders are issued requisitioning the ships of the Northern admiralty for army transport.
1340 6 March John, fourth son of Edward III of England and Isabella of Hainault, is born at Ghent, in Flanders.
1340 mid March The nobility of the northern and eastern provinces of France is summoned to be at Amiens and Compiègne by 18 May.
1340   The Earls of Salisbury and Suffolk, concerned about the French military buildup, plan with the Duke of Brabant, the Margrave of Juliers, Jacob van Arteveldt and the recently arrived Count of Hainault, make a plan to attack the city of Tournai, in an attempt to relieve the French attacks on Hainault. The plan is to approach the town from three directions, Van Artevelde from the north with troops from Ghent and the Flemish towns, the Duke of Brabant, Margrave of Juliers and Count of Hainault to approach from the south, and the Earls of Salisbury and Suffolk to make a noticeable diversion, approaching from the west and feinting at Lille on the way.
1340 26 March The garrison of Cambrai raid south-east to Haspres, completely destroying the town.
1340 27 March Hugh of Geneva takes the field with an army of Gascons. Simultaneous with this, the small towns and villages of the western Agenais switch their allegiance away from France, following the lead of Bernard-Aiz d'Albret. The French garrisons of larger towns, including the important French towns of Marmande and La Reole, are forced to stay within the walls for safety, and sometimes even to the keep.
1340 29 March Parliament meets, and Edward addresses them, presenting a bleak picture of what will become of him if they do not grant an immediate and generous grant. He would be forever dishonored, his kingdom and his duchy threatened with extinction, his allies lost, and he himself forced to return to imprisonment in Brussels until the debts could be paid. He submits to the demands of Commons without any apparent concern for the constitutional implications, as long as they grant him the money, and to the demand of both houses that should Edward become King of France that the English would not be subject to the rule of France. Commons grants a tax of a ninth on all grain, wool and lambs, as well as a ninth property tax on all townsmen.
1340 early April The Earls of Salisbury and Suffolk cross the Lys.
1340   Parliament begins collecting the agreed on subsidy in England, a tax of a ninth of all grain, wool and lambs in the country, and a ninth of all movable goods in the towns, expected to raise £100,000 by November first, and the same amount again the following year. This is a new form, different from the usual tenths and fifteenths, and collection goes very slowly.
1340   The English fleet is ordered to Rye Bay, to be ready to intercept any French fleets coming out of the channel ports.
1340   Nicolino Fieschi, Edward III's agent at the Papal court, is kidnapped by French agents, to prevent him hiring galleys for the English war effort. Barely dressed, he is taken to Fort Saint-Andre at Villeneuve les Avignon, on the French side of the Rhone, and held there. This results in a brief though serious rift between the French and the papacy.
1340 2 April William, Count of Hainault, once again in the English camp, issues his formal defiance to the French crown from Mons. instead of marching immediately on Tournai, however, he is convinced by his uncle John to raid into the Thiérache, which is in the opposite direction, on the theory that they would attack the large body of French troops assumed to be gathering there.
1340 4 April Hugh of Geneva attacks Sainte Bazeille, defeating its small garrison in a pitched battle at the gates. A short siege followed, and then the place was taken by storm. Hugh and his Gascons overrun the western Agenais north of the Garonne.
1340 5 April Pope Benedict XII places Flanders under interdict, and most of the churches close. Ghent remains calm, but in many of the other towns there is anxiety and occasional unrest and disorder.
1340   The Earls of Salisbury and Suffolk take and sack Armentières, then lead their men east.
1340 9 April Embarkation of the English army is scheduled to begin at Orwell and Sandwich. This deadline is not met.
1340 11 April The Earls of Salisbury and Suffolk, leaving the bulk of their army camped on the banks of the Deule, ride towards Lille accompanied by Guy of Flanders, a renegade knight of Artois named Perceval d'Aubrequin, thirty cavalry and some mounted archers. Their movements are reported to the commander of the Lille garrison, who makes a sortie from the town, cutting the Earls off and trapping them between them and the moat. After a valiant battle the Earls are captured, Guy of Flanders escapes, and all others are killed. The prisoners are sent under guard to King Philippe in Paris, and the remainder of their army, now leaderless, disbands. Perceval d'Aubrequin is summarily executed as a traitor, and the Earls of Salisbury and Suffolk, saved from a similar fate by the intervention of King John of Bohemia, are imprisoned in the Chatelet.
1340   Jacob van Arteveldt's troops arrive on the plain above Tournai. Alarms ring out through the city, and men are sent out to burn the suburbs, to deprive the besiegers of shelter.
1340 12 April A servant of the Earl of Salisbury arrives at Tournai, informing Jacob van Arteveldt of the disaster concerning Salisbury and Suffolk at Lille. He summons the city to surrender, but receives a defiant refusal and, unsupported by either the Earls or the Count and his companions, marches his army away from the city.
1340 20 April William Count of Hainault, joined by the Duke of Brabant and the Margrave of Juliers, arrive in the Thiérache. The French, commanded by Walter de Brienne, titular Duke of Athens, are not so numerous as reports have led the Count of Hainault to believe, and seeing that they are outnumbered, retreat to Vervins, to await reinforcements.
1340 24 April Walter de Brienne, who was away at Vincennes conferring with King Philippe VI, is ordered urgently back to his command. The Count of Hainault and the other nobles, deprived of their prey, pillage and burn the surrounding countryside, destroying some forty villages in the vicinity, including Aubenton, which, despite a vigorous defense by 30 hopelessly outnumbered men at arms, was ruthlessly pillaged, with a great part of the population being burned alive in the church where they had taken refuge. The Count and his companions subsequently withdraw back into Hainault.
1340 30 April The garrisons of Tournai and Lille, led by the Duke of Burgundy, the Constable and the Marshals of France capture the village of Antoing, the last gap in the string of French strongholds along the Scheldt. They subsequently march into Hainault, pillaging and burning thirty-two towns.
1340 May The Count of Armagnac departs his lands to join the army of Philippe VI's northern army. He has, however, given to Bernard-Aiz d'Albret documents detailing his terms for changing his allegiance to Edward III. Included in his demands are the towns of Montré, Mézin and Condom.
1340 early May? A large force of Hainaulters, with some Brabanters and Germans, attack the river crossing at Mortagne, while another attempt to seize an unfortified ford three miles downstream. Mortagne, defended by a small garrison under the command of Jean de Vienne, was assaulted for four hours under the personal direction of Count William of Hainault before the attack failed. At the ford ten French soldiers, obstructing the river with old building timber, held the crossing for two hours before they were reinforced. Count William, finding the ford he'd hoped to have in friendly hands defended by not only the original ten but further hundreds from Saint-Amand, attempts an assault, but breaks off when the Hainaulters and their allies begin to suffer heavy causalities. They return that evening to Valenciennes.
1340   English ships raid Le Treport and Mers.
1340 16 May The English royal council meets at the Carmelite convent in London to discuss further postponement of the sending of the army to France. The date for the ships to be ready had been put back to 12 June at this point, and the council rejected any further delay, despite the seeming inevitability of it.
1340 18 May 10,000 French troops under the command of Jean, Duke of Normandy, march out of Saint Quentin, bound on an offensive against Hainault and Brabant. This is the first military expedition for the twenty one year old Jean, eldest son of Philippe VI, and he is accompanied by King Philippe VI's most influential councilor, Mile de Noyers, as well as many experienced soldiers, including the counts of Alençon and Foix. The Count of Hainault, acting as if he wasn't expecting this invasion, leaves his troops in the field, doing nothing to stop the invaders, and flees to Brussels, to beg the Duke of Brabant for help.
1340 20 May Jean, Duke of Normandy and his army arrive at Cateau-Cambrésis, and are met there by the Duke of Burgundy, the Constable and the Marshals, who have brought up additional troops from Tournai.
1340   The Duke of Brabant, the Count of Flanders and the other leaders of the coalition meet in Brussels to consider how best to respond to the French invasion of Hainault.
1340 22 May Jean, Duke of Normandy arrives outside Valenciennes with his army, immediately beginning to lay waste to the surrounding countryside, reducing everything within two miles of the walls to ashes, including most of the convent buildings of Fontanelles, where Jean's aunt was the abbess.
1340 23 May The garrison of Valenciennes, under the command of Henri d'Antoing assisted by the Earls of Warwick and Northampton, sorties forth from Valenciennes, further swelled by a large body of armed citizens of the town. They catch the French army completely by surprise, and drive them down the Cambrai road, causing many casualties and loss of equipment for the French. Jean of Normandy withdraws his troops into the northern Cambrésis.
1340 24 May Jean, Duke of Normandy, lays siege to Escaudoeuvres. The commander, Gérard de Sassigny is allowed to go in person to seek aid from Count William of Hainault, but the Count was not yet ready with an army.
1340 26 May The Norman section of the great Army of the Sea sails from Harfleur, towards Flanders. As it passes the Picardy coast it is joined by the other ships from those ports. In the end it constitutes some 6 galleys, 22 oared barges, 7 royal sailing ships and 167 requisitioned merchantman, for a grand total of 202 ships.
1340 June Nicolino Fieschi, Edward III's agent in the papal court, is released by his kidnappers.
1340 3 June Gérard de Sassigny returns to Escaudoeuvres from Mons. Having received no promise of relief, he surrenders the castle, for which he receives from the French in return 10,000 florins, and the cash value of all the provisions laid up in store against a siege He is seized by his own soldiers when out of reach of the French, conducted to the Count of Flanders, who has him broken on the wheel. The French proceed to destroy Escaudoeuvres, and march on Thun-l'Évêque.
1340 4 June King Edward III meets with his council at Ipswich. The review of the progress of gathering and shipping the army, and of the continuing delay in doing that, convinces him that the only way he will be able to meet his own deadline is to sail with his entourage and household troops and whichever of the principal noblemen were currently ready, and to let the rest follow as they could. This ends up comprising a fleet of 40 ships and 600 men at Orwell.
1340 6 June The French army begins to assault the walls of Thun-l'Évêque with heavy siege machinery.
1340 7 June The French army is reinforced with troops drawn from the garrisons from the Thiérache and the Laonnais.
1340 about this time... Troops of the English and German alliance are converging on Thun-l'Évêque from two directions, the Brabant/Hainault group coming up the Scheldt, and the Flemings marching in from the west.
1340   English forces capture Montréal. Without a garrison, its citizens resist fiercely, but are defeated.
1340 The rebellion in Gascony begins to spread beyond the Garonne valley.
1340 8 June The Great Army of the Sea appears in the Hondt, quickly taking the island of Cadzand and coming to anchor in the Zwin opposite the harbor of Sluys.
1340 10 June A messenger from the Duke of Guelders reaches Archbishop Stratford in Ipswich, informing him of the French fleet of Sluys. this leads to a series of increasingly angry exchanges between Edward III and his advisors, who feel he should cancel his planned sailing, which culminates with Archbishop Stratford walking out of a meeting with the King, and Edward stating that he would sail as planned and 'Those who are afraid can stay at home'. In the end he delays a few days to requisition a few more ships and fighting men, bringing the fleet of the Cinque Ports to Orwell, as well as the larger ships of the western admiralty.
1340 15 June Kind Philippe VI arrives at Thun-l'Évêque with a large body of cavalry, and places himself under his the command of his son, Jean, Duke of Normandy. This brings the number of French troops in the field to approximately 18,000.
1340 20 June The Duke of Brabant, Count of Hainault and others of the noble party, arrive at Thun-l'Évêque. In accordance with their plan they attempt to force a crossing of the Scheldt on the French pontoon bridges, to meet up with the Flemings, coming in from the west. Their initial rush at the bridges is repulsed, and there subsequent challenge of the French to a field battle is refused, leaving them to stand idly by on the wrong side of the river.
1340   The fleet at Orwell completes its muster, standing in it's final number somewhere between 120 and 160 ships, with Edward II making his headquarters aboard the Cog Thomas.
1340 22 June The English fleet passes Harwich.
1340 23 June The English fleet arrives off the Flemish coast, just west of the mouth of the Zwin.
1340 about this time... The Flemish forces under Jacob van Arteveldt find the crossings of the Scarpe blocked by French troops from Tournai, and decide to take the long way around, via Condé and Valenciennes.
1340 23 June In the night flames are seen to be rising from Thun-l'Évêque. The French storm the outer wall to find the place empty, the garrison having secretly crossed the river to join the nobles of the Anglo-German coalition, who march away just before dawn leaving the French in possession of the ruins.
1340 23 June Edward III sends two knights ashore, Sir Reginald Cobham and Sir John Chandos to make contact with the Flemish, and who return with a report of the French fleet of 400 vessels tightly packed in the entrance of the Zwin channel.
1340   At a meeting of the French commanders Barbavera, the most experienced sailor of them, advises that the admirals, Hugh Quieret and Nicholas Béhuchet, should take the fleet out of the Zwin estuary, where there is no room for the fleet, now expanded to 213 ships with the addition of some Spaniards and loyal Flemings, and attack the English fleet when they tried to land their army. Quieret and Béhuchet, concerned that the English might slip past them and land the army if the moved, instead drew up their ships in three lines across the estuary, chaining them together to form an impassable barrier.
1340 24 June Battle of Sluys.
1340 25 June Edward III attends a triumphal mass, and goes on a pilgrimage to Notre Dame de Ardenberg, a few miles from Bruges, to give thanks for his victory.
1340 28 June Edward III's victory dispatches reach London.
1340 30 June Jacob van Artevelde and many of the principal citizens of Ghent meet with King Edward III on the Cog Thomas, where Edward is recuperating from an arrow wound suffered at the battle of Sluys, to work out the basic strategy for the coming campaign. A large number of troops are raised by the Flemings, though untrained and ill equipped. The force is divided into two parts, one under the command of Edward III, made up of 1,000 English men at arms and 100,000 Flemings from Ghent and northern Flanders which was to campaign into the Scheldt valley and besiege Tournai, and one under the command of Robert of Artois, consisting of most of the English archers, all the German allies and 50,000 Flemings, which was to attack Saint Omer in Artois. The assignment of the command to d'Artois was made in the belief that Robert d'Artoi had a following in Artois, and that it would rise up in his favor when he entered it.
1340 July Raimond de Montaut, appointed one of Edward III's captains Perigord, raises a rebellion against the Count of Perigord, making southern Perigord inaccessible to the French.
1340 Early July In response to the news of the battle of Sluys, Philippe VI sends 4,000 men to guard the Cambrésis and to continue the pressure on southern Hainault.
1340   Sir Thomas Ferrers embarks at Southampton on an expedition to reconquer the islands of Guernsey, Alderney and Sark for England.
1340 4 July The arrier ban is proclaimed through northern France, summoning all men of fighting age to Arras by the end of the month.
1340 6 July King Philippe VI enters Arras and establishes his headquarters. Over the course of the month his army swells to 24,000 men, mostly mounted men at arms, and the garrisons of Aire, Saint Venant, Lille, Douai, Mortagne, Saint Amand and Cambrai are reinforced.
1340 8 July Edward III disembarks from the Cog Thomas and travels to Ghent.
1340 10 July Edward III arrives in Ghent, where he meets with the German princes, informing them of his plan to attack Saint Omer.
1340 12 July Parliament meets again in the Painted Chamber at Westminster, with the Chancellor once again pleading for money.
1340   Sir Thomas Ferrers lands on the island of Guernsey, and quickly takes control of the undefended parts of the island.
1340 15 July Two earls and a knight from Edward III's household, bearing news of the battle of Sluys and a letter outlining Edward's strategy for the summer campaign, appear before Parliament in an attempt to encourage them to grant further monies to the king.
1340 Second Week of July Pierre de la Palu, seneschal of Toulouse, retakes the city of Montréal from the English using troops stripped from the garrisons of Perigord.
1340   Pierre de la Palu marches north to deal with the rebellion in Perigord.
1340 15 July The Duke of Burgundy enters Saint Omer with several thousand men at arms, and begins to destroy the suburbs. Robert of Artois is still 15 miles away, and is only barely managing to convince his troops to advance. There has been no uprising in his favor in Artois, none of the German princes have joined him, and he has far fewer troops that he expected to command. He manages to convince them that friends of his inside the town will open the gates to him, and they continue the advance.
1340 16 July Robert of Artois reaches the borders of the county of Artois. Time is wasted in looting, and in destroying the town of Arques, while the Count d'Armagnac brings further reinforcements to the Duke of Burgundy in Saint Omer.
1340 17 July Sir Thomas Ferrers, with a force of 330 men, lays siege to Cornet Castle, on Guernsey.
1340 18 July Edward III leaves Ghent and marches up the Scheldt towards Tournai.
1340 23 July Freed again for action by the removal of the troops of Pierre de la Palu, the English take Mézin.
1340   Edward III and his army camp at Chin, three miles from Tournai.
1340   The Count de Foix, detached from the main army at Arras, reinforced Tournai with 3,000 soldiers, bringing the total of troops in the city to nearly 6,000.
1340   The French army leaves Vitry Ridge and marches towards Saint Omer.
1340 24 July The Earls of Northampton, Derby and Warwick, who had stood as surety for some of Edward III's loans, are arrested in Brussels, and confined to a debtor's prison in Mechelen. They are eventually released to join the king on campaign, but only in exchange for four knights apiece, and a promise to return when the campaign was over.
1340   Parliament reluctantly agrees to a forced loan of 20, 000 sacks of wool for the kings expenses, attaching stringent qualifications to ensure the money went to the war, and not into the hands of corrupt war financiers.
1340 26 July The Battle of St. Omer. Robert of Artoi, becoming belatedly aware that he is in danger of being caught between the garrison of Saint Omer and the massive field army of Philippe VI, offered battle to the troops in Saint Omer, drawing his troops up in the open ground between Saint Omer and what's left of Arques. The Duke of Burgundy, under orders from the king, ignores him, but around midday, without orders from the Burgundy, most of the Dukes retinue, accompanied by many of the local levies, sallied forth and fell on the left flank of the Anglo-Flemish army. When they were repulsed, the men of Ypres abandoned their defenses to pursue, upon which the retreating French turn around and a fierce battle is joined. Unable to stop the battle, the Duke of Burgundy and the Count of Armagnac issue forth and join the battle with the rest of their troops, the Count of Armagnac riding around and striking at the southern edge of the melee with about 300 cavalry. This causes the men of Ypres, and the other Flemings, to break and flee, spreading panic through the rest of the army of Robert d'Artois. The Duke of Burgundy rode straight towards the front lines of the Anglo-Flemings, who charge on seeing them, and overwhelm the Dukes troops, who fall back into the suburbs of Saint Omer, where they suffer serious losses in the narrow streets until they could get through the gate back into the city. Robert d'Artois returns to his camp to find it destroyed by the flight of the majority of his army.
1340 26 July Robert Houdetot intercepts and English merchant convoy, capturing 30 ships and killing their crews.
1340   Edward III, having been joined by the Hainaulters and most of the Germans, issues a challenge, claiming the title of King of France, challenging 'Philippe de Valois' to single combat or a staged battle of 100 champions.
1340 27 July Faced with the destruction and flight of the better part of the Anglo-Flemish army by the Count d'Armagnac, the remainder, unwilling to face the French again, flee back to Cassel and Ypres, with Robert d'Artois following behind them. The French take the camp and the baggage train nearly intact, seizing a number of warhorses, 600 carts, many tents, stores, and nearly all of the Flemish standards.
1340 29 July King Philippe VI and his army arrive at Aire-sur-la-Lys, on the Flemish border. He detaches 2,000 men under the Duke of Athens to pursue the remnants of Robert d'Artois army, and holds a meeting of his council. Two plans are discussed, one to invade Flanders and hopefully draw off the Flemings from Tournai, and the other to march to the relief of Tournai itself. The Count of Flanders objects strenuously to the first option, and so the decision is taken to march on Tournai.
1340 30 July Bertrand de l'Isle reinforces the city of Condom with 500 men and assumes the command of the defense.
1340 End of July Representatives of Ypres and Bruges, along with some enemies of Jacob van Artevelde in Ghent, contact the French court with inquiries as to terms for readmission to the French king's favor.
1340   Quotas are assigned and commissioners appointed to each county for the gathering of the wool for the forced loan to the Crown, and prices fixed according to the English Wool Company scheme of 1337. The plan encounters fierce resistance.
1340   Robert Houdetot, newly appointed admiral of the French fleet, puts to sea with a small squadron, having requisitioned ships in the Seine ports. Most are survivors of the battle of Sluys, along with a Spanish contingent, comprised of armed merchantmen hired in the ports along the bay of Biscay.
1340 31 July King Philippe IV's response to Edward III's challenge reaches Edward III. Philippe says he paid no attention to letters addressed to Philippe de Valois, as it was clearly not intended for him, and that, in due course, he would throw Edward III and his allies out of France. In response, Edward III moves down the river and invests Tournai for siege.
1340 August Raimond de Montaut's bands of rebels advance along the Isle river.
1340 1 August Robert de Houdetot lands on the Isle of Wight, and causes great damage and casualties, including the commander, Sir Theobald Russel, before being driven back to his ships by the local militia.
1340   In an attempt to draw the French army out of Tournai, the English attack the town of Orchies, conducting a parley with the leading men of the town, while at the same time sacking it, and then taking the richest citizens for ransom.
1340 2 August Robert de Houdetot lands on the island of Portland, laying waste to it, and then moves on to Teignmouth.
1340 1 or 2 August The English arrive outside Condom. They do not have sufficient strength to storm the place, nor even to fully invest the town.
1340 3 August Pierre de la Palu, informed of the English attack at Condom, begins concentrating forces from all over Languedoc, sending them on to Bertrand de l'Isle.
1340   The Count of Hainault attacks Saint Amand, in conjunction with a force from Valenciennes. The defenders of Saint Amand fight fiercely, first on the fields outside the city, and then from the walls, but are defeated. The Count razes the walls, destroys the monastery, and completely destroyed the town, and took away the principal citizens for ransom.
1340   Robert de Houdetot attempts to sack Plymouth, but has lost the element of surprise and only succeeds in burning a manor house and taking a few prisoners before leaving again.
1340 5 August Robert de Houdetot and his fleet return to their bases for resupply, and to plan further depredations on the English coast.
1340   English forces from the siege of Tournai destroy the abbey near Marchiennes.
1340 9 August The first of de Palu's reinforcements reached Condom, with more arriving daily thereafter.
1340 10 August Messengers are snuck out of Tournai, to appraise Philippe VI of the miserable state of the defenders. He responds with irritation, telling them their duty was to hold out until he could get there, and that they would be rewarded after the campaign.
1340 mid August In response to the raids of Robert de Houdetot the western Admiralty fleet is reconstituted, ships being requisitioned from London, Yarmouth and the Cinque Ports. Robert Morley is sent with ships of the northern Admiralty to defend the Channel Islands, the militia is mobilized along the southern coast, and a convoy system is instituted for all ships sailing from English ports.
1340   The Scots leaders decide to make an autumn campaign against Sterling, the northmost point of English holdings in Scotland. The English Council orders the recruitment of an army in the north to deal with the threat, and reinforces its garrisons in central Scotland.
1340 13 August The Council informs King Edward III, rather optimistically, that they will soon be able to place at his disposal substantial sums of money from the sale of the wool granted by Parliament.
1340 20 August Wool merchants appear before the Council to purchase the collected wool from the forced loan, but find there is nearly nothing to buy, as only 854 sacks of the required 20,000 have actually been collected, due to the resistance of the wool producers.
1340 21 August Raimond de Montaut, aided by the citizens of the city, captures Saint Astier
1340 23 August With Condom reinforced to a strength of nearly 1,400 men, plus numerous volunteers from the town, and a further relief force on it's way, the English give up the siege of Condom and march away.
1340 26 August A force of 2,000 Flemings and some Englishmen assault the walls of Tournai at the Port Sainte Fontaine, on the north of the city. They are driven back with heavy losses.
1340 29 August Robert de Houdetot sails again from France, but finds the English fleet waiting in force off Winchelsea, and is unable to do any raiding.
1340   Robert Morley sails off the mouth of the Seine, and in the Channel Islands, and mounts a serious raid on Brest, which is a neutral port, seizing six merchant galleys, with cargoes worth 10,000£.
1340   French troop strengths in the southern theatre reach an unprecedented level of 20,000 troops, in response to the English threat in that area. The constable, Raoul d'Eu, and Louis d'Espange are dispatched south to Saintonge, and troops intended to reinforce the army under King Philippe VI in the north are diverted to the Garonne valley.
1340   Raimond de Montaut and the rebels in Perigord reach the outskirts of Périgeux
1340   Agents of King Jaime III of Majorca meet with King Edward III and make arrangements for further negotiations between the two monarchs.
1340 2 September The English once again assault Tournai at the Port Sainte Fontaine, piling brushwood against the gate and setting it alight, and battering the gate with siege engines, and finally launching an assault that last most of the day before being broken off. The defenders are rewarded with a barrel of burgundy wine.
1340 7 September King Philippe VI and his army enter the Tournai region, camping at Bouvines, taking up a defensive position behind the dense marshes. The commanders in the city meet with the burgesses to make plans for a sortie in support of the anticipated battle, and criers are sent out into the street summoning men to their arms.
1340 8 September A reconnaissance party of Hainaulters, under the guidance of a local bandit, run into a foraging party from the troops of the Prince-Bishop of Liege, and a bloody skirmish ensues in which the Hainault troops are driven off. Another body of Hainaulters attempts to cross over the bridge at Tressin, but after another fierce skirmish are again driven off.
1340 22 September Philippe VI is convinced by his brother, the count d'Alençon, and his sister Jeanne de Valois, Abbess of Fontenelle and dowager Countess of Hainault, to attempt negotiations with Edward III. Jeanne goes to the camp of Edward III and meets with him. Edward III, though informed that the garrison of Tournai is reduced to 200 men with only two weeks food, feels that his allies are untrustworthy and will not fight, and so agrees to negotiations.
1340 23 September John of Bohemia, the Prince Bishop of Liege, the counts of Alençon, Flanders and Armagnac for the French, and Henry Burghersh, John of Hainault, the dukes of Brabant and Guelders, and the Margrave of Juliers for the English, begin negotiations in a small chapel outside Esplechin. The Flemings, afraid of the French reaction, begin to arrive in the French camp and beg King Philippe's pardon.
1340 24 September A truce agreement is reached between the French and the English, to last nine months in all theatres of the war. All parties would hold their current position, and all prisoners would be paroled, to be returned to captivity should hostilities begin again. King Philippe VI agrees to see to it that the ecclesiastical penalties on Flanders would be lifted, and that he would not exercise his papal privilege of placing the province under excommunication and interdict.
1340 25 September The truce is formally agreed and sealed, and heralds in both camps announce the cessation of hostilities. the Duke of Brabant and his troops had already departed,
1340 27 September The English and the Flemings depart, marching northward.
1340 28 September Edward III arrives in Ghent. He feasts and jousts with the coalition leaders, while his creditors line up to make their demands. He is unable to meet his daily expenses, and has to borrow £100 just to pay for his archers meals. The Archbishop of Trier, to whom the Great Crown of England has been pawned, threatens to break it up if he is not paid.
1340 Autumn The French put down the rebellions in the Agenois and Perigord, thought the English maintain possession of Saint Astier and Mezin, as per the truce of Esplechin.
1340 October Edward III writes to his ministers complaining that their failure to raise money is the reason his campaign did not succeed
1340 2 October The Council in England summons before them a meeting of sheriffs, bailiffs, mayors and collectors to inquire why no wool has been collected. They are told that all the wool had been smuggled out of the country before the collectors arrived, among other 'frivolous excuses'.
1340 End of October Edward III has a meeting with his German allies, in which he is only able to offer them a part payment 12, 000 sacks of wool in two installments, which would work out to about £100,000 in a good market. The allies insist on cash.
1340 1st fortnight of November Edward III manages to raise £9,000, 2,100 from Henry of Lancaster who pawned his jewels, and 44,000 florins, about £6,600 from a usurer who got guarantees from the Earl of Northampton and the Duke of Guelders, as well as the Bardi and Peruzzi banks. He also gets four knights as hostages, as well as a partner of each of the banks.
1340 28 November Edward III, after leaving an apologetic note for his Flemish creditors, pretends to go out for a morning ride. He take with him eight companions, including the Earl of Northampton, Walter Mauny and William Kilsby, his private secretary, and, once out of the city, make a dash for Sluys. There they board a small boat for the Zeeland Islands, and from there a ship for England.
1340 30 November Edward III arrives in London. landing at the water gate of the Tower at dawn with only eight followers. He finds the Constable, Sir Nicolas de la Beche, absent from his post. This, coupled with the fruitless campaign, sends him into a fury. The principal war financiers are summoned from their beds, and detained separately for interrogation. The Chancellor and the Treasurer arrived at dawn, to be summarily dismissed. Over the next few months he dismisses the Bishops of Chichester and Coventry, all the Justices and many of the Magistrates of the Kings Bench, and locks up William de la Pole and Walter Putney, merchants who Edward III felt had not gotten enough for the previous years wool crop. He also locks up de la Beche in one of his own dungeons.
1340 12 November The representatives of the Bardi and Peruzzi banks undertake to pay Edward III's debts, in return for a shipment of wool, but no wool arrives, so the bankers are forced to default.
1340 2 December Sir Geoffrey Scrope and Bishop Henry Burghersh die in Ghent.


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